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Effects Of Repetitive Lifting On Kinematics: Inadequate Anticipatory Control Or Adaptive Changes?
J. V. van Dieën, P. van der Burg, T. A. Raaijmakers, H. Toussaint
Published 1998 · Psychology, Medicine
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In the present study, the effects of repetition on the kinematics in discrete lifting were studied in 10 subjects who lifted a barbell weighing 10% of body mass at a determined speed and along a determined trajectory 630 times during about 40 min. Three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the feet, lower and upper legs, pelvis, and trunk were recorded in the first 3 and the final 3 lifting movements of each set of 70 lifts. Over time, trunk extension velocity in the initial 250 ms of the lifting movement decreased, reaching negative (increasing flexion) values in most subjects. In contrast, hip extension velocity increased. Those changes resulted in an increased phase lag between hip and trunk extension. Also, over time, subjects started the lifting movement with their legs more extended and their trunks further flexed. Finally, the motion of the trunk around its longitudinal axis (twisting) increased. The increase in phase lag between hip and trunk extension is interpreted as a consequence of fatigue-more specifically, as the result of a decreased rate of force development of the back muscles. The change in initial posture more likely is an adaptation that functions to retard further fatigue development.
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