Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Apoptosis: A Review Of Programmed Cell Death

S. Elmore
Published 2007 · Medicine, Biology

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptosis in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptosis.
This paper references
immunosurveillance and immunotherapy
I. de Belle (2000)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1918
Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins: Translating Basic Knowledge into Clinical Practice
A. Schimmer (2004)
10.1073/PNAS.90.3.980
Do all programmed cell deaths occur via apoptosis?
L. M. Schwartz (1993)
10.1016/0092-8674(93)80047-I
Macrophages are required for cell death and tissue remodeling in the developing mouse eye
R. Lang (1993)
Evidence that caspase-13
U. Koenig (2001)
The apoptosis-necrosis paradox
M. Geuskens (1997)
10.1016/S0952-7915(03)00108-0
Nuclear war: the granzyme A-bomb.
J. Lieberman (2003)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb00245.x
Cytotoxicity‐dependent APO‐1 (Fas/CD95)‐associated proteins form a death‐inducing signaling complex (DISC) with the receptor.
F. Kischkel (1995)
10.1038/nri819
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: all roads lead to death
M. Barry (2002)
Mitochondria, the killer
L. 138–44. Ravagnan (2002)
DNA damage-induced activation
E. U. 4672–9. Kurz (2004)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81590-1
Cleavage of BID by Caspase 8 Mediates the Mitochondrial Damage in the Fas Pathway of Apoptosis
H. Li (1998)
10.1182/BLOOD-2002-06-1743
The resistance of B-CLL cells to DNA damage-induced apoptosis defined by DNA microarrays.
L. Vallat (2003)
10.1016/S0952-7915(98)80222-7
Mechanisms of CD95 (APO-1/Fas)-mediated apoptosis.
M. Peter (1998)
cance in cancer and cancer therapy
F J. (1972)
lymphoma detected by oligonucleotide microarray
H R. (1999)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4400665
Bcl-xL does not inhibit the function of Apaf-1
D. Newmeyer (2000)
Does
J. Debnath (2005)
10.1016/S0065-2776(08)60822-6
Programmed cell death in the immune system.
J. J. Cohen (1991)
Apoptosis in neural devel
D. Nijhawan (2000)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4401282
Does prothymosin-α act as molecular switch between apoptosis and autophagy?
M. Piacentini (2003)
The pros and cons of apoptosis assays for use in the study
A L. (2002)
death and NF - kappa B activation
S. Hu (1998)
Two distinct phases of apoptosis
K. Dano (1996)
10.1152/AJPHEART.00783.2002
Bax ablation protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in transgenic mice.
E. Hochhauser (2003)
10.1038/35084103
Engulfment genes cooperate with ced-3 to promote cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans
D. J. Hoeppner (2001)
10.1074/jbc.272.42.26159
Appearance of Phosphatidylserine on Apoptotic Cells Requires Calcium-mediated Nonspecific Flip-Flop and Is Enhanced by Loss of the Aminophospholipid Translocase*
D. Bratton (1997)
a specific form of programmed cell death
N. K. Rai (2005)
10.1007/BF03401837
Apoptosis in Caspase-inhibited Neurons
C. Volbracht (2001)
con - tribute to cell death ?
G. Denecker (2001)
10.1073/PNAS.97.26.14376
An alternative, nonapoptotic form of programmed cell death.
S. Sperandio (2000)
10.1038/35037722
Corpse clearance defines the meaning of cell death
J. Savill (2000)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4401087
Distinct downstream pathways of caspase-11 in regulating apoptosis and cytokine maturation during septic shock response
S. J. Kang (2002)
10.1177/019262339702500116
The Pathways of Cell Death: Oncosis, Apoptosis, and Necrosis
B. Trump (1997)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4400970
The serine protease Omi/HtrA2 is released from mitochondria during apoptosis. Omi interacts with caspase-inhibitor XIAP and induces enhanced caspase activity
G. Loo (2002)
10.1074/jbc.273.45.29648
Caspase-14 Is a Novel Developmentally Regulated Protease*
S. Hu (1998)
Expression and activation of tissue transglutaminase in apoptotic cells of involuting rodent mammary tissue.
Z. Nemes (1996)
10.1016/S1044-5323(03)00035-6
Fas (CD95/Apo-1) ligand regulation in T cell homeostasis, cell-mediated cytotoxicity and immune pathology.
T. Brunner (2003)
Acute hemorrhagic myocardial
P. Hanlon (2005)
Detection of changes in mitochondrial
M. Poot (1999)
p53 tumor-suppressor gene: clues
X. W. Wang (1997)
10.1038/35083620
Endonuclease G is an apoptotic DNase when released from mitochondria
L. Li (2001)
10.1073/PNAS.110078997
Nonapoptotic neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.
M. Turmaine (2000)
10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00460-2
Cell cycle checkpoint signaling: cell cycle arrest versus apoptosis.
J. Pietenpol (2002)
10.1038/86297
A fresh look at tumor immunosurveillance and immunotherapy
M. Smyth (2001)
10.1083/jcb.200108085
The anti-apoptotic activity of XIAP is retained upon mutation of both the caspase 3– and caspase 9–interacting sites
J. Silke (2002)
10.1016/S0962-8924(00)88932-1
The role of DNA fragmentation in apoptosis.
C. Bortner (1995)
tracellular adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) concentration : a switch in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis
J. J. Lemasters (1998)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4401950
Mechanisms of cytochrome c release from mitochondria
C. Garrido (2006)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4644(199701)64:1<19::AID-JCB4>3.0.CO;2-2
In vitro and in vivo studies of ICE inhibitors
D. J. Livingston (1997)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90411-5
Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, displaces bax and promotes cell death
E. Yang (1995)
Does prothymosinalpha act as molecular switch between apoptosis and autophagy ?
M. Piacentini (2003)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.21-13-04752.2001
Programmed Cell Death of Developing Mammalian Neurons after Genetic Deletion of Caspases
R. Oppenheim (2001)
The roles of Bid. Apoptosis
D. W. Ethell (2002)
10.1007/s004320000181
Fas receptor counterattack against tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in vivo as a mechanism of immune escape in gastric carcinoma
S. Koyama (2001)
Toxic proteins released from mitochondria
P. Vandenabeele (2004)
Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis
G. 181–93. Majno (1995)
10.1007/978-1-4899-0274-0_23
Granzyme B-induced apoptosis.
A. Greenberg (1996)
10.1182/BLOOD-2005-05-2013
Characterization of 8p21.3 chromosomal deletions in B-cell lymphoma: TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 as candidate dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes.
F. Rubio-Moscardo (2005)
10.1038/nrc839
The phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase–AKT pathway in human cancer
I. Vivanco (2002)
Macrophages induce apoptosis in normal cells in vivo.
G. Diez-Roux (1997)
10.1038/35004029
The coordinate release of cytochrome c during apoptosis is rapid, complete and kinetically invariant
J. C. Goldstein (2000)
10.1038/nrm976
Creating new fluorescent probes for cell biology
J. Zhang (2002)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7716549
Induction of apoptosis in uninfected lymphocytes by HIV-1 Tat protein.
C. Li (1995)
10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00150-8
Tumor Suppressor NM23-H1 Is a Granzyme A-Activated DNase during CTL-Mediated Apoptosis, and the Nucleosome Assembly Protein SET Is Its Inhibitor
Zusen Fan (2003)
Increased poly ( ADPribosyl ) ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer ’ s disease
S. Love (1999)
10.1007/BF00331373
Distinction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death by in situ labelling of fragmented DNA
M. Kressel (2004)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7510905
Protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis by a soluble form of the Fas molecule.
J. Cheng (1994)
after genetic deletion of caspases
B A. (1996)
cytotoxicity and immune pathology
N B. (2000)
10.1016/J.SEMCANCER.2006.07.011
The Oscar-worthy role of Myc in apoptosis.
N. Meyer (2006)
death and tissue remodeling in the developing mouse eye
G. T. Le (2005)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81382-3
Serine Phosphorylation of Death Agonist BAD in Response to Survival Factor Results in Binding to 14-3-3 Not BCL-XL
Jiping Zha (1996)
Noxa, a BH3-only member
T. Taniguchi (2000)
10.1016/S1074-7613(03)00032-3
Granzyme B-induced apoptosis requires both direct caspase activation and relief of caspase inhibition.
I. Goping (2003)
10.1161/01.CIR.101.6.660
Akt promotes survival of cardiomyocytes in vitro and protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse heart.
Y. Fujio (2000)
10.1038/nrc776
Death and anti-death: tumour resistance to apoptosis
F. Igney (2002)
Noxa , a BH 3only member of the Bcl - 2 family and candidate mediator of p 53induced apoptosis
E. Oda (2000)
10.4161/auto.1.2.1738
Does Autophagy Contribute To Cell Death?
J. Debnath (2005)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0320(19990401)35:4<311::AID-CYTO3>3.0.CO;2-E
Detection of changes in mitochondrial function during apoptosis by simultaneous staining with multiple fluorescent dyes and correlated multiparameter flow cytometry.
M. Poot (1999)
Yeast autophagosomes: de
T. Noda (2002)
10.1016/S0079-6336(03)80002-5
Apoptotic detection methods--from morphology to gene.
Y. Otsuki (2003)
pathway in human cancer
M. Leist (2001)
Programmed cell death of developing mammalian neurons
P. kic (2001)
From bench to clinic with apoptosisbased therapeutic agents
D. W. Nicholson (2000)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase AKT
I. Vivanco (2002)
10.1006/ABIO.1997.2220
Fluorometric and colorimetric detection of caspase activity associated with apoptosis.
V. Gurtu (1997)
The mitochondrial death
P. G. Ekert (2005)
10.1126/SCIENCE.278.5336.294
Caspase-3-generated fragment of gelsolin: effector of morphological change in apoptosis.
S. Kothakota (1997)
10.1177/1534734605280018
Apoptosis: A Basic Physiologic Process in Wound Healing
N. Rai (2005)
10.1084/JEM.192.4.571
Two Distinct Pathways Leading to Nuclear Apoptosis
S. Susin (2000)
The TNF and TNF
R. M. 19–26. Locksley (2001)
10.11501/3169176
Cleavage of CAD inhibitor in CAD activation and DNA degradation during apoptosis
坂平 英樹 (2000)
10.1038/34112
A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD
M. Enari (1998)
Signals leading to apoptosisdependent inhibition of neovascularization by thrombospondin1
B. Jimenez (2000)
10.1023/A:1020035124855
The roles of Bid
M. D. Esposti (2004)
10.1038/335440A0
Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoietic cell survival and cooperates with c-myc to immortalize pre-B cells
D. Vaux (1988)
10.1016/0092-8674(95)90070-5
The TNF receptor 1-associated protein TRADD signals cell death and NF-κB activation
H. Hsu (1995)
10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.032
Cell-Surface Calreticulin Initiates Clearance of Viable or Apoptotic Cells through trans-Activation of LRP on the Phagocyte
S. Gardai (2005)
10.1016/J.DNAREP.2004.03.029
DNA damage-induced activation of ATM and ATM-dependent signaling pathways.
E. Kurz (2004)
10.1038/35084096
Phagocytosis promotes programmed cell death in C. elegans
P. Reddien (2001)
10.1038/284555A0
Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation
A. Wyllie (1980)
FLIP prevents apoptosis
C. J. Froelich (1998)
Essential role
J. C. Pflucker (2001)
10.1038/35069004
Essential role of the mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor in programmed cell death
N. Joza (2001)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0320(19990301)35:3<181::AID-CYTO1>3.0.CO;2-5
Analysis of apoptosis by laser scanning cytometry.
E. Bedner (1999)
10.1002/jcp.10111
Mitochondria, the killer organelles and their weapons
L. Ravagnan (2002)
10.1038/sj.onc.1201324
The apoptosis-necrosis paradox. Apoptogenic proteases activated after mitochondrial permeability transition determine the mode of cell death
T. Hirsch (1997)
10.1016/J.PHRS.2005.02.013
Clinical perspectives of PARP inhibitors.
G. Graziani (2005)
Essential role of the mitochondrial apoptosis - inducing factor in programmed cell death
S. J. Kang (2002)
Apoptosis in caspaseinhibited neurons
C. Volbracht (2001)
GASTRIC CARCINOMA.
William J. Macdonald
10.1023/A:1025317516396
Fas Ligand-Mediated Apoptosis in Degenerative Disorders of the Brain
D. Ethell (2004)
10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.05993.x
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome: molecular basis of disease and clinical phenotype
A. Worth (2006)
10.1126/SCIENCE.290.5497.1717
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
D. Klionsky (2000)
10.1126/SCIENCE.1071553
The Fas Signaling Pathway: More Than a Paradigm
H. Wajant (2002)
10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00457-2
History of the events leading to the formulation of the apoptosis concept.
J. R. Kerr (2002)
Fluorometric and colorimetric
V. Gurtu (1997)
Mechanism of functional inactivation of a Li-Fraumeni syndrome p53 that has a mutation outside of the DNA-binding domain.
J. Gu (2001)
10.4049/jimmunol.171.9.4672
Silent Cleanup of Very Early Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages 1
K. Kurosaka (2003)
10.1038/sj.embor.7400622
Granzyme A, which causes single‐stranded DNA damage, targets the double‐strand break repair protein Ku70
P. Zhu (2006)
The role of cFLIP in modulation of CD 95induced apoptosis
C. Scaffidi (1999)
10.1126/SCIENCE.281.5381.1305
Death receptors: signaling and modulation.
A. Ashkenazi (1998)
Bcl-2 gene promotes haemopoi
D. L. 3–7. Vaux (1988)
10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00248-2
Apoptosis and toxicology--what relevance?
D. Vaux (2002)
- surface calreticulin initiates clearance of viable or apoptotic cells through transactivation of LRP on the phagocyte
C. Garrido
Cellular pathology I : cell injury and cell death
R. S. Cotran (1999)
The nomenclature of cell death
R. R. Maronpot (1999)
The role of DNA
C. D. 181–95. Bortner (1995)
10.1038/35056522
Ubiquitin and proteasomes: Molecular dissection of autophagy: two ubiquitin-like systems
Y. Ohsumi (2001)
10.1038/sj.onc.1207521
Autophagy as a cell death and tumor suppressor mechanism
D. Gozuacik (2004)
10.1016/S1357-2725(98)00058-2
The role of apoptosis in wound healing.
D. Greenhalgh (1998)
10.1136/bmj.322.7301.1536
What is apoptosis, and why is it important? Education and debate
A. Renehan (2001)
Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.
G. Majno (1995)
10.1038/35048077
Walther Flemming: pioneer of mitosis research
N. Paweletz (2001)
10.1038/nrc883
The Bcl2 family: regulators of the cellular life-or-death switch
S. Cory (2002)
Expression and activation of tissue transglutaminase
L. Fesus (1996)
Apoptotic detection methods–from
Z. Li (2003)
Bax conformational change
F. T. Liu (2003)
Mechanisms of CD 95 ( APO1 / Fas )mediated apoptosis
M. E. Peter (1998)
10.1016/S1534-5807(01)00116-2
A distinct pathway remodels mitochondrial cristae and mobilizes cytochrome c during apoptosis.
L. Scorrano (2002)
Tumor suppressor p53 is a regulator of bcl-2 and bax gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
T. Miyashita (1994)
10.1093/BRAIN/122.2.247
Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease.
S. Love (1999)
10.1038/SJ.NEO.7900003
The apoptosome: heart and soul of the cell death machine.
A. Chinnaiyan (1999)
10.1038/sj.emboj.7600210
Analysis of the composition, assembly kinetics and activity of native Apaf‐1 apoptosomes
M. Hill (2004)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00008-8
Smac, a Mitochondrial Protein that Promotes Cytochrome c–Dependent Caspase Activation by Eliminating IAP Inhibition
C. Du (2000)
10.1074/JBC.M003649200
Loss of Phospholipid Asymmetry and Surface Exposure of Phosphatidylserine Is Required for Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages and Fibroblasts*
Valerie A. Fadok (2001)
Autophagy in yeast: a review
W. P. Huang (2002)
immunosurveillance and immunotherapy
I. de Belle (2000)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80535-X
The Death Domain Kinase RIP Mediates the TNF-Induced NF-κB Signal
M. Kelliher (1998)
10.1007/978-1-4757-9217-1_1
Genetic control of programmed cell death in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
H. Horvitz (1999)
10.2174/092986705774462851
Inhibitors of TACE and Caspase-1 as anti-inflammatory drugs.
G. Le (2005)
The death domain kinase RIP mediates the TNF-induced NF-kappaB signal.
M. Kelliher (1998)
10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80063-X
Apoptosis and the maintenance of homoeostasis in the immune system.
B. Osborne (1996)
10.1038/nri911
Functional significance of the perforin/granzyme cell death pathway
J. Trapani (2002)
10.1146/ANNUREV.IMMUNOL.20.100201.131730
Lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity.
J. H. Russell (2002)
10.1038/35037710
The biochemistry of apoptosis
M. Hengartner (2000)
10.1016/S0168-9525(98)01573-X
Genetics of programmed cell death in C. elegans: past, present and future.
M. M. Metzstein (1998)
Autoimmune lympho
A. Worth (2006)
10.1016/0925-4439(95)00026-Z
Mechanism of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with age and diseases.
T. Ozawa (1995)
Inhibition of programmed cell death
H G. (1993)
Apoptosis and toxicology—what relevance? Toxicology
D. L. Vaux (2002)
In - tracellular adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) concentration : a switch in the decision between apoptosis and necrosis
M. Leist (1997)
tribute to cell death? Autophagy
G. Denecker (2001)
The role of DNA
C. D. 181–95. Bortner (1995)
10.1042/BJ3260001
Caspases: the executioners of apoptosis.
G. Cohen (1997)
10.1038/sj.onc.1204282
Intracellular mechanisms of TRAIL: apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent and -independent pathways
A. Suliman (2001)
10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00237-9
The TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamilies Integrating Mammalian Biology
R. Locksley (2001)
10.1016/S1534-5807(03)00090-X
Annexin I is an endogenous ligand that mediates apoptotic cell engulfment.
Swathi Arur (2003)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PHYSIOL.60.1.601
Cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.
K. King (1998)
10.1006/BBRC.2001.5315
Evidence that caspase-13 is not a human but a bovine gene.
U. Koenig (2001)
10.1074/jbc.272.51.32401
TWEAK, a New Secreted Ligand in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family That Weakly Induces Apoptosis*
Y. Chicheportiche (1997)
10.3892/IJO.18.1.33
Human pancreatic cancer cells express non-functional Fas receptors and counterattack lymphocytes by expressing Fas ligand; a potential mechanism for immune escape.
A. Elnemr (2001)
10.1038/sj.onc.1203249
More than one way to die: apoptosis, necrosis and reactive oxygen damage
W. Fiers (1999)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4401088
The role of mitochondrial factors in apoptosis: a Russian roulette with more than one bullet
G. Loo (2002)
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.18-14-05151.1998
Cyclosporin A, But Not FK 506, Protects Mitochondria and Neurons against Hypoglycemic Damage and Implicates the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Cell Death
H. Friberg (1998)
10.1084/JEM.185.8.1481
Intracellular Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Concentration: A Switch in the Decision Between Apoptosis and Necrosis
M. Leist (1997)
10.1074/jbc.274.3.1541
The Role of c-FLIP in Modulation of CD95-induced Apoptosis*
C. Scaffidi (1999)
10.1111/j.1749-6632.1992.tb27444.x
Role of Free Radicals in Aging and Disease
D. Harman (1992)
10.1038/sj.bjp.0703336
Caspase inhibition and limitation of myocardial infarct size: protection against lethal reperfusion injury
M. Mocanu (2000)
10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2006.06.011
Granzyme B is critical for T cell receptor-induced cell death of type 2 helper T cells.
Satish Devadas (2006)
10.1101/GAD.13.3.239
IAP family proteins--suppressors of apoptosis.
Q. Deveraux (1999)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(199711)173:2<247::AID-JCP30>3.0.CO;2-A
p53 tumor‐suppressor gene: Clues to molecular carcinogenesis
X. Wang (1997)
10.1038/sj.onc.1207523
Toxic proteins released from mitochondria in cell death
X. Saelens (2004)
Appearance of phosphatidylserine on apop
P. M. Henson (1997)
Characteri - zation of 8 p 21 . 3 chromosomal deletions in B - cell lymphoma : TRAILR 1 and TRAILR 2 as candidate dosagedependent tumor suppressor genes
F. Rubio-Moscardo (2005)
10.1016/0300-9629(93)90176-5
Inhibition of programmed cell death by catalase and phenylalanine methyl ester.
G. H. Little (1993)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PHARMTOX.41.1.367
Cellular responses to DNA damage.
C. Norbury (2001)
Characterization of 8 p 21 . 3 chromosomal deletions in B-cell lymphoma : TRAIL-R 1 and TRAIL-R 2 as candidate dosage-dependent tumor suppressor genes
F. Rubio-Moscardo (2005)
Development of central nervous system pathology in a murine transgenic model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
M. D. Dal Canto (1994)
Does prothymosin-alpha act as molecular switch between apoptosis and autophagy?
M. Piacentini (2003)
10.1074/jbc.M506928200
Fas-, Caspase 8-, and Caspase 3-dependent Signaling Regulates the Activity of the Aminophospholipid Translocase and Phosphatidylserine Externalization in Human Erythrocytes*
D. Mandal (2005)
10.1042/BST0290684
Mechanisms of p53-dependent apoptosis.
M. Schuler (2001)
FLIP prevents apoptosis induced by death receptors but not by perforin/granzyme B, chemotherapeutic drugs, and gamma irradiation.
T. Kataoka (1998)
Mechanisms of CD95
E M. (1998)
The tumor suppressor p53.
L. Donehower (1993)
The TNF receptor
H. Hsu (1995)
10.1354/vp.40-5-481
The Apoptosis-Necrosis Continuum: Insights from Genetically Altered Mice
C. Zeiss (2003)
Protection from Fas-mediated apoptosis
J P. (1994)
Granzyme A induces caspase
D. Martinvalet (2005)
10.1038/bjc.1972.33
Apoptosis: A Basic Biological Phenomenon with Wide-ranging Implications in Tissue Kinetics
J. Kerr (1972)
A fresh look at tumor
M. J. Smyth (2001)
10.1007/PL00000863
Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors
G. Denecker (2001)
Confocal laser scanning microscopy of morphology and apoptosis in organogenesisstage mouse embryos
R. M. Zucker (2000)
Molecular dissection of autophagy : two ubiquitinlike systems
Y. Ohsumi (2001)
10.1247/CSF.27.409
Autophagy in yeast: a review of the molecular machinery.
W. Huang (2002)
10.1038/bjc.1997.328
Li-Fraumeni syndrome--a molecular and clinical review.
J. Varley (1997)
10.1016/J.BBRC.2003.09.109
Bax conformational change is a crucial step for PUMA-mediated apoptosis in human leukemia.
F. Liu (2003)
10.1146/ANNUREV.NEURO.23.1.73
Apoptosis in neural development and disease.
D. Nijhawan (2000)
10.1016/S0005-2728(98)00112-1
The mitochondrial permeability transition in cell death: a common mechanism in necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy.
J. Lemasters (1998)
10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2005.02.004
Granzyme A induces caspase-independent mitochondrial damage, a required first step for apoptosis.
D. Martinvalet (2005)
10.1016/S1074-7613(00)80551-8
Toso, a cell surface, specific regulator of Fas-induced apoptosis in T cells.
Y. Hitoshi (1998)
10.1002/1097-0142(19940415)73:8<2013::AID-CNCR2820730802>3.0.CO;2-J
Apoptosis. Its significance in cancer and cancer Therapy
J. Kerr (1994)
Caspase inhibition
M. M. 1799–805. Mocanu (2000)
The TNF receptor 1associated protein TRADD signals cell death and NFkappa B activation
H. Hsu (1995)
10.1016/J.CEB.2005.09.001
The mitochondrial death squad: hardened killers or innocent bystanders?
P. Ekert (2005)
Cellular pathology I : cell injury and cell death
R. S. Cotran (1999)
10.1038/35037747
From bench to clinic with apoptosis-based therapeutic agents
D. Nicholson (2000)
10.1177/019262339902700419
The Nomenclature of Cell Death: Recommendations of an ad hoc Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathologists
S. Levin (1999)
10.1074/jbc.M008363200
Executioner Caspase-3, -6, and -7 Perform Distinct, Non-redundant Roles during the Demolition Phase of Apoptosis*
E. Slee (2001)
10.1093/emboj/20.12.3114
Direct inhibition of caspase 3 is dispensable for the anti‐apoptotic activity of XIAP
J. Silke (2001)
and cancer therapy
J. F. Kerr (1972)
10.1152/AJPHEART.00823.2005
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 hyperactivation and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I function in reperfused mouse hearts.
Hui-zhong Zhou (2006)
Development of central nervous
Philadelphia (1994)
10.1006/EXCR.1999.4477
Laser-scanning cytometry: A new instrumentation with many applications.
Z. Darzynkiewicz (1999)
TWEAK, a new secreted ligand
I. Garcia (1997)
Does autophagy
J. Debnath (2005)
10.1016/S0962-8924(02)02278-X
Yeast autophagosomes: de novo formation of a membrane structure.
Takeshi Noda (2002)
10.1016/S1097-2765(05)00021-3
Aven, a novel inhibitor of caspase activation, binds Bcl-xL and Apaf-1.
B. Chau (2000)
10.1182/BLOOD.V98.3.787
Altered apoptosis pathways in mantle cell lymphoma detected by oligonucleotide microarray.
W. Hofmann (2001)
10.1038/47513
Caspase-12 mediates endoplasmic-reticulum-specific apoptosis and cytotoxicity by amyloid-β
T. Nakagawa (2000)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-4652(200001)182:1<41::AID-JCP5>3.0.CO;2-7
Aponecrosis: Morphological and biochemical exploration of a syncretic process of cell death sharing apoptosis and necrosis
L. Formigli (2000)
10.1210/ENDO-129-5-2799
Involvement of apoptosis in ovarian follicular atresia and postovulatory regression.
J. Tilly (1991)
10.1152/AJPHEART.01164.2004
Ephedrine plus caffeine causes age-dependent cardiovascular responses in Fischer 344 rats.
R. Howden (2005)
10.4049/jimmunol.169.9.4805
Caspase-Independent Phosphatidylserine Exposure During Apoptosis of Primary T Lymphocytes1
C. Ferraro-Peyret (2002)
Phagocytosis promotes
P. W. Reddien (2001)
Use of fluorescently
J. Grabarek (2002)
10.1038/71517
Signals leading to apoptosis-dependent inhibition of neovascularization by thrombospondin-1
B. Jimenez (2000)
10.1038/ni0503-410
Apoptosis in the development and maintenance of the immune system
J. Opferman (2003)
10.1093/TOXSCI/KFI034
Acute hemorrhagic myocardial necrosis and sudden death of rats exposed to a combination of ephedrine and caffeine.
A. Nyska (2005)
apoptotic cell engulfment
V. M. Dixit (1998)
Macrophages are required for cell
R. A. 889–900. Lang (1993)
DNA damageinduced activation of ATM and ATMdependent signaling pathways
E. U. Kurz (2004)
10.1016/S0076-6879(00)22004-1
Detection of apoptosis by annexin V labeling.
E. Bossy-Wetzel (2000)
An Alternative, Non-Apoptotic Form of Programmed Cell Death
(2001)
10.1007/s004410000193
The morphology of apoptosis
G. Häcker (2000)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BIOCHEM.67.1.509
The green fluorescent protein.
R. Tsien (1998)
10.1096/fj.01-0206fje
The mitochondrial permeability transition initiates autophagy in rat hepatocytes
S. P. Elmore (2001)
Ephedrine plus caffeine causes
A. Nyska (2005)
10.1038/sj.cdd.4400925
Hyperphosphorylation of histone H2A.X and dephosphorylation of histone H1 subtypes in the course of apoptosis
H. Talasz (2002)
10.1017/S1431927602010346
The pros and cons of apoptosis assays for use in the study of cells, tissues, and organs.
M. Watanabe (2002)
Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways.
L. Lund (1996)
10.1016/S0014-4827(02)00027-7
Necrosis: a specific form of programmed cell death?
S. Y. Proskuryakov (2003)
10.1126/SCIENCE.288.5468.1053
Noxa, a BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family and candidate mediator of p53-induced apoptosis.
E. Oda (2000)
Cellular pathology I: cell injury
S R. (1999)
Fas receptor counterattack
S. Koyama (2001)
Cells, Tissues, and Organs
Donna Latham (2009)
10.1385/1-59259-822-6:105
A morphologic approach to detect apoptosis based on electron microscopy.
M. White (2004)
10.1006/JMCC.1999.1066
Apoptosis is initiated by myocardial ischemia and executed during reperfusion.
B. Freude (2000)
Confocal laser
R. M. Zucker (2000)
10.1074/jbc.M505843200
Bax Channel Inhibitors Prevent Mitochondrion-mediated Apoptosis and Protect Neurons in a Model of Global Brain Ischemia*
C. Hetz (2005)



This paper is referenced by
10.1159/000165071
A Brief History of Apoptosis: From Ancient to Modern Times
A. Diamantis (2008)
Isolation, Identification and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Marine Fungus Aspergillus unguis RSPG_204
F. K. A. El-hady (2014)
10.1080/17434440.2019.1682996
Intraoperative storage of saphenous vein grafts in coronary artery bypass grafting
Cathy Pachuk (2019)
10.1186/s13054-018-2210-y
Angiotensin-(1–7) attenuates organ injury and mortality in rats with polymicrobial sepsis
H. Tsai (2018)
10.1002/bit.22648
Hypoxia enhances proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cell‐derived neural stem cells
C. A. Rodrigues (2010)
Elsa Isabel de Oliveira Marques: Tumor Suppressor Functions of Epithelial Integrity Genes in Breast Cancer
Director Juha Klefström (2018)
10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.10.051
p21-Activated kinase 5: a pleiotropic kinase.
Yi-yang Wen (2013)
10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.127
Establishment of in vitro and in vivo anti-colon cancer efficacy of essential oils containing oleo-gum resin extract of Mesua ferrea.
M. Asif (2019)
10.1016/j.micres.2017.11.016
For the greater good: Programmed cell death in bacterial communities.
Stijn H. Peeters (2018)
10.2147/DDDT.S70096
Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement
Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi (2014)
10.1096/fj.201901360R
The volatile anesthetic sevoflurane reduces neutrophil apoptosis via Fas death domain–Fas‐associated death domain interaction
S. Koutsogiannaki (2019)
10.18632/oncotarget.12946
Nickel chloride-induced apoptosis via mitochondria- and Fas-mediated caspase-dependent pathways in broiler chickens
H. Guo (2016)
10.1074/jbc.M114.550020
Caspase-activated DNase Is Necessary and Sufficient for Oligonucleosomal DNA Breakdown, but Not for Chromatin Disassembly during Caspase-dependent Apoptosis of LN-18 Glioblastoma Cells*
María Sánchez-Osuna (2014)
10.1007/s10495-009-0400-4
Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the development of diabetes: is there a role for adipose tissue and liver?
C. V. D. van der Kallen (2009)
10.1128/JVI.00343-09
Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Induces Apoptosis in Human Papillomavirus-Infected Cell Lines but Not in Normal Keratinocytes
S. Alam (2009)
10.1177/0960327119842635
Nephroprotective effect of wogonin against cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity via inhibition of oxidative stress–induced MAPK and NF-kB pathway in Sprague Dawley rats
D. Jiao (2019)
10.1111/jcmm.15415
Lestaurtinib potentiates TRAIL‐induced apoptosis in glioma via CHOP‐dependent DR5 induction
Yingxiao Cao (2020)
10.1002/wrna.1527
Splicing and cancer: Challenges and opportunities
P. Coltri (2019)
10.1007/s12035-016-0234-3
Promotion of the Unfolding Protein Response in Orexin/Dynorphin Neurons in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Elevated pPERK and ATF4 Expression
Nicholas J Hunt (2016)
10.15698/mic2019.05.678
Mitochondria-Associated Membranes (MAMs) are involved in Bax mitochondrial localization and cytochrome c release
Alexandre Légiot (2019)
10.1080/21691401.2019.1608218
Co-SLD suppressed the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma via disrupting mitochondrial function
Sirui Li (2019)
10.1007/s43188-019-00011-7
In-vivo antiproliferative activity of Morus latifolia leaf and bark extracts against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma.
Md Shihabul Islam (2020)
10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.110555
Short communication: Adipogenic, metabolic, and apoptotic marker mRNA in cellular fractions of adipose tissue from chickens predisposed to be anorexic or obese.
Y. Xiao (2019)
10.1002/jcp.27824
CtIP promotes G2/M arrest in etoposide‐treated HCT116 cells in a p53‐independent manner
H. Chen (2019)
10.1016/j.tifs.2019.07.038
Dihydromyricetin: A review on identification and quantification methods, biological activities, chemical stability, metabolism and approaches to enhance its bioavailability
Dan Liu (2019)
10.1016/j.cld.2016.08.002
Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity.
Amina I. Shehu (2017)
10.1016/j.neuro.2018.09.009
The investigation of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda‐cyhalothrin (LCT)‐affected Ca2+ homeostasis and ‐activated Ca2+‐associated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in normal human astrocytes: The evaluation of protective effects of BAPTA‐AM (a selective Ca2+ chelator)
S. Hsu (2018)
10.3389/fphar.2020.00581
Jianpiyifei II Granules Suppress Apoptosis of Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Inhibition of the Reactive Oxygen Species-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Ca2+ Signaling Pathway
L. Fan (2020)
10.1016/B978-0-12-804598-5.00012-X
The Application, Neurotoxicity, and Related Mechanism of Cationic Polymers
Y. Li (2017)
10.1016/J.JFF.2015.12.024
Effects of L. paracasei subp. paracasei X12 on cell cycle of colon cancer HT-29 cells and regulation of mTOR signalling pathway
L. Huang (2016)
10.1016/j.brainres.2015.11.016
Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1) offers neuroprotection through diminishing cell death and improving functional outcome in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury
Q. Wu (2016)
10.1002/jat.3658
In vitro assays and techniques utilized in anticancer drug discovery
M. K. Ediriweera (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar