Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Service Encounters As Bases For Innovation

Jon Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline Sundbo, Anders Henten
Published 2015 · Economics
Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
This article examines the factors affecting the innovativeness of service encounters – either as drivers or as barriers. The assumption is that a considerable number of innovations in service industries are initiated in service encounters and that employees are the core factor in connecting customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two first are drivers; the third a barrier. A model that summarizes the findings is presented.
This paper references
10.1016/J.TECHNOVATION.2010.08.002
Co-operation and co-opetition as open innovation practices in the service sector: Which influence on innovation novelty?
A Mention (2011)
10.1016/B978-0-7506-8753-9.50010-X
The service encounter
Beverley Sparks (2008)
10.2307/1252174
The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents:
Mary Jo Bitner (1990)
10.1111/j.1467-9310.2009.00569.x
Exploring Open Innovation Practice in Firm-Nonprofit Engagements: A Corporate Social Responsibility Perspective
Sara B. Holmes (2009)
Open service innovation
H. Chesbrough (2006)
10.1007/s11747-007-0059-8
The effects of customer participation in co-created service recovery
Beibei Dong (2008)
10.1111/1467-9310.00263
The Development of Co-Innovation Strategies: Stages and Interaction Patterns in Interfirm Innovation
Bart Bossink (2002)
10.1007/S12087-010-0044-2
Marketing as Value Co-creation Through Network Interaction and Resource Integration
Evert Gummesson (2010)
Public life and the internet
P. Lieber (2008)
10.2307/136430
Tangibles, intangibles and services: a new taxonomy for the classification of output
Peter J. Hill (1999)
10.1353/rhe.1992.0002
How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study
John W Creswell (1992)
10.4337/9781782548416.00011
The sources of innovation.
Josef D. Cooper (1972)
Product Development For The Service Sector: Lessons From Market Leaders
Robert G. Cooper (1999)
10.1177/1470593111408172
Roles as resources: A social roles perspective of change in value networks
Melissa Archpru Akaka (2011)
10.1108/09564230410523330
Managing customer expectations in the service encounter
Ray W. Coye (2004)
10.1007/978-1-349-15898-0
After industrial society
Jonathan Gershuny (1978)
The new service economy
Jonathan Gershuny (1983)
10.4337/9780857931962.00023
Service Innovation as an Experience: Differences between Employee and User Narratives
Anu Helkkula (2011)
Innnovation in services
F Gallouj (1997)
10.5860/choice.41-6635
The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers
Subrata Biswas (2004)
Co-operation and co-opetition as open innovation practices in the service sector: Which influence on innovation novelty? Technovation
A.-L Mention (2011)
10.1509/JMKG.74.3.48
Is Customer Participation in Value Creation a Double-Edged Sword? Evidence from Professional Financial Services Across Cultures
Kimmy Wa Chan (2010)
10.1891/9780826193889.0004
Case study research
Jean Hartley (2004)
Innovation Management and New Product Development
Paul W. Trott (2004)
Consumer and Employee Roles in Service Encounters
Michael Guiry (1992)
10.3917/JIE.005.0067
Bricolage and invisible innovation in public service innovation
Lars Fuglsang (2010)
10.1016/j.technovation.2008.10.001
Open innovation in SMEs : trends, motives and management challenges
Jong de Jpj (2007)
10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.04.004
Removing the fuzziness from the fuzzy front-end of service innovations through customer interactions
Ian Alam (2006)
10.1017/S1833367200002534
Organisational and group antecedents of work group service innovativeness
Evaristo Nsenduluka (2009)
Blocking mechanisms in user and employee based service innovation
Jon Sundbo (2013)
10.1016/J.RESPOL.2010.01.006
Experimental methods in innovation research
Flemming Brandt Sørensen (2010)
10.4324/9780203064474
Economics of Industrial Innovation
Christopher Freeman (1982)
Innovation process interlinked with the process of service delivery : a management challenge in KIBS
Marja Toivonen (2007)
Co-operation and co-opetition as open innovation practices in the service
Mention (2011)
10.4337/9781782548416.00013
Potentials for user-based innovation in tourism: The example of GPS tracking of attraction visitors
Flemming Brandt Sørensen (2012)
New Product Development: from Initial Idea to Product Management
Marc A. Annacchino (2003)
10.1080/15710880701875068
Co-creation and the new landscapes of design
Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders (2008)
10.4337/9780857931962
User-Based Innovation in Services
Jon Sundbo (2012)
New service development: A review of the literature and annotated
A. Edward Elgar. Johne (1998)
10.1097/00152192-199903000-00007
Case Study Research
Joanne D. Whitney (1999)
10.1016/S0956-5221(00)00040-3
Realizing innovation in services
Wietze van der Aa (2002)
10.1080/02642069700000028
Management of Innovation in Services
Jon Sundbo (1997)
10.5860/choice.49-0366
Participant Observation: A Guide for Fieldworkers
K. M. DeWalt (2002)
10.1108/09564230810891914
Key strategies for the successful involvement of customers in the co‐creation of new technology‐based services
Per Kristensson (2008)
10.4324/9780203379998
Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual
Robert G.Burgess (1986)
The change masters
Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1983)
10.1509/jmkg.67.1.14.18592
Psychological Implications of Customer Participation in Co-Production
Neeli Bendapudi (2003)
10.1111/j.1475-4991.2000.tb00848.x
The Characterization of Goods and Services: An Alternative Approach
Jean Gadrey (2000)
10.2307/1883165
Market Structure and Innovation
Glenn C. Loury (1979)
10.1016/0166-4972(96)00029-6
The balancing of empowerment. A strategic resource based model of organizing innovation activities in service and low-tech firms
Jon Sundbo (1996)
10.1109/TEM.2009.2033044
Resource-Constrained Innovation for Emerging Economies: The Case of the Indian Telecommunications Industry
Pradeep Kanta Ray (2010)
10.2189/asqu.2005.50.3.329
Creating Something from Nothing: Resource Construction through Entrepreneurial Bricolage
Ted Baker (2005)
10.1504/IJSTM.2000.001565
Innovation as a loosely coupled system in services
Jon Sundbo (2000)
10.1007/S11747-013-0360-7
A longitudinal analysis of supplier involvement in buyers’ new product development: working relations, inter-dependence, co-innovation, and performance outcomes
Sengun Yeniyurt (2014)
10.4337/9781781000977.00012
The Lab is back: Towards a new model of innovation in services
Jon Sundbo (2013)
10.1108/09564231211248426
Customer co‐creation in service innovation: a matter of communication?
Anders Gustafsson (2012)
Which is correct? Period or comma
C. Boks (2012)
10.1080/13662710500087925
Organization of Knowledge and Innovation: The Case of Finnish Business Services
Aija Leiponen (2005)
10.1142/9781848161306_0004
Services and the Knowledge-Based Economy
Ian Miles (2000)
10.1108/03090569810204526
New service development: a review of the literature and annotated bibliography
Andreas Johne (1998)
After industrial society? London: Macmillan
F. Edward Elgar. Gallouj (1997)
10.5465/AMP.2012.0126
Open Service Innovation in the Global Banking Industry: Inside-Out Versus Outside-In Strategies
Peter T. Gianiodis (2014)
10.4337/9781849803304.00021
Different Types of Innovation Processes in Services and their Organisational Implications
Marja Toivonen (2010)
10.1057/9780230378841_13
Towards a Better Measurement of the Soft Side of Innovation. First Results of an Experiment Aimed at Measuring Non-technological Innovation Using an Adapted Innovation Survey in the Netherlands
Pim den Hertog (2006)
Service Management and Marketing
Manisha Bhatt (2011)
10.1007/s11747-007-0070-0
Managing the co-creation of value
Adrian Payne (2008)
10.2307/2283617
The Service Economy.
Edward F. Denison (1969)
10.1177/1461444807086474
Public life and the internet: if you build a better website, will citizens become engaged?
Renita Coleman (2008)
10.1142/p458
Involving Customers in New Service Development
Bo Edvardsson (2006)
10.1108/01425459910266385
Empowerment of employees in small and medium‐sized service firms
Jon Sundbo (1999)
Perspective: Creating a platform-based approach for delivering new service
M Meyer (2001)
10.17226/765
Managing innovation.
Vivien Martin (2000)
10.1590/S0034-75901961000200012
The theory of economic development
Raimar Richers (1961)
Participatory Action Research: Theory and Methods for Engaged Inquiry
Jacques M. Chevalier (2013)
10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.013
Co-creating brands: diagnosing and designing the relationship experience
Adrian Payne (2009)
10.1016/S0048-7333(97)00030-9
Innovation in services
Faïz Gallouj (1997)
Expanding understanding of service exchange
B. Edvardsson (2011)
Managing service innovation (PhD thesis)
P. Lexington Books. Den Hertog (2010)
10.1108/02634500710737924
Customer community and co-creation: a case study
Jennifer E. Rowley (2007)
10.2307/2088295
The human group
George Caspar Homans (1950)
10.1108/14636691211204851
Innovations from the ICT‐based service encounter
Anders Henten (2011)
10.1177/001872678904200202
Case Studies as Natural Experiments
Allen S. Lee (1989)
10.1007/978-1-4419-1628-0
Handbook of Service Science
Paul P. Maglio (2012)
10.1142/9789814273596_0009
An Overview of Innovation
Stephen Kline (2009)
10.1108/08876041011072546
Not always co-creation: introducing interactional co-destruction of value in service-dominant logic
Loïc Plé (2010)
10.5465/amr.2002.7389914
Designing Virtual Customer Environments for New Product Development: Toward a Theory
Satish Nambisan (2002)
Intrapreneuring
G Pinchot (1985)
10.1142/p294
Service Innovation:Organizational Responses to Technological Opportunities & Market Imperatives
Joe Tidd (2003)
10.1080/02642069800000016
The Provider-Customer Interface in Business and Professional Services: Moment of Truth, Moment of Thrust
Jean Gadrey (1992)
10.1287/mnsc.48.7.821.2817
Shifting Innovation to Users via Toolkits
Eric von Hippel (2002)
10.1016/J.RESPOL.2013.07.004
Open service innovation and the firm's search for external knowledge
Andrea Mina (2014)
10.4018/978-1-4666-5884-4.CH003
Co-Creation of Innovations in ICT-Based Service Encounters
Jannick Kirk Sørensen (2014)
10.1177/0170840607068082
Complex Incremental Product Innovation in Established Service Firms: A Micro Institutional Perspective
Patrick A.M. Vermeulen (2006)
Goods and services.
Catherine Jackson (2004)
Service innovation: Organisational responses to technological opportunities and market imperatives
J. Tidd (2003)
A New Paradigm in Marketing - The Service Dominant Logic: Academia's Reactions to the Theory of Vargo and Lusch
C. Weißenfels (2014)
Managing service innovation: firm-level dynamic capabilities and policy options
Pim den Hertog (2010)
10.5860/choice.50-5682
Anthropological Practice: Fieldwork and the Ethnographic Method
Judith Okely (2007)
10.1016/0148-2963(90)90038-F
Service encounters and service relationships: Implications for research
John A. Czepiel (1990)
10.2307/41166446
Service Blueprinting: A Practical Technique for Service Innovation
Mary Jo Bitner (2008)
10.1108/00251741211227528
Co‐innovation: convergenomics, collaboration, and co‐creation for organizational values
Sang Mook Lee (2012)
Co-creation : A new source of value By
Ajit Kambil (2001)
10.4337/9780857931962.00011
‘Othering’ in Service Encounters: How a Professional Mindset Can Hinder User Innovation in Services
Donna Isabella Caroline Sundbo (2011)
10.1016/J.TECHNOVATION.2011.01.004
Product innovation for the people's car in an emerging economy
Sangeeta Ray (2011)
10.1080/09537287.2010.536619
Collaborative networked organisations and customer communities: value co-creation and co-innovation in the networking era
David Romero (2011)
10.1016/J.TECHNOVATION.2011.04.006
Customer Integration within Service Development : A review of methods and an analysis of insitu and exsitu contributions
Per Kristensson (2010)
10.1007/S11747-010-0200-Y
Expanding understanding of service exchange and value co-creation: a social construction approach
Bo Edvardsson (2011)
Service management and marketing
Christian Grönroos (1990)
10.1108/09564231211269847
Shaping, organizing, and rethinking service innovation: a multidimensional framework
Luis Rubalcaba (2012)
10.4337/9781781000410
Handbook of Service Business
John R. Bryson (2015)
10.1108/JOE-05-2014-0014
Anthropological Practice: Fieldwork and the Ethnographic Method
Mike Rowe (2014)
The theory of economic development. Harvard: Harvard Economic Studies Series
J Schumpeter (1934)
10.2307/2344163
The service economy
Victor R. Fuchs (1968)
10.1177/002224299105500102
A Test of Services Marketing Theory: Consumer Information Acquisition Activities
Keith B. Murray (1991)
10.1080/02642069.2010.504302
The balance between bricolage and innovation: management dilemmas in sustainable public innovation
Lars Fuglsang (2009)
10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2013.08.017
Is the more always better? A comparative study of internal and external integration practices in new product and new service development
Christian Homburg (2014)
10.4337/9781781000410.00019
Service and experience
Jon Sundbo (2015)
10.15358/0344-1369-2011-2-98
Service-Dominant Logic for Marketing
Michaela Haase (2011)
10.1525/cmr.2013.55.2.97
Simple Rules for Designing Business Models
Sayan Chatterjee (2013)
10.1108/09564231111124190
Idea generation: customer co‐creation versus traditional market research techniques
Lars Witell (2011)
The Power of Co-Creation: Build It with Them to Boost Growth, Productivity, and Profits
Venkatram Ramaswamy (2010)
10.4337/9781849803304.00023
The Toilsome Path of Service Innovation: The Effects of the Law of Low Human Multi-task Capability
Jon Sundbo (2010)
10.4337/9781781004227.00013
Experiencing and experiences: A psychological framework
Christian Jantzen (2013)
10.1177/1470593111408181
Co-creation and co-destruction: A practice-theory based study of interactive value formation
Per Echeverri (2011)
10.1177/1470593111408177
Value co-creation in service logic: A critical analysis
Christian Grönroos (2011)
10.4337/9781849803304
The Handbook of Innovation and Services
Faïz Gallouj (2010)
10.1177/1470593111408179
Cocreation is chaotic: What it means for marketing when no one has control
Dan Fisher (2011)
10.2307/1252042
Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees.
Mary Jo Bitner (1992)
10.1002/9781118785317.WEOM100088
High-Involvement Innovation
James Moultrie (2015)
New Service Development and Innovation in the New Economy
Bo Edvardsson (2000)
10.1016/S0737-6782(01)00070-4
Creating a platform-based approach for developing new services
Marc H. Meyer (2001)
10.1177/002224298705100103
Service Positioning through Structural Change
G. Lynn Shostack (1987)
10.1016/J.RESPOL.2013.04.003
Organisational conditions for service encounter-based innovation
Flemming Brandt Sørensen (2013)
10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2012.02.031
Environmental information from stakeholders supporting product development
Silje Helene Aschehoug (2012)



This paper is referenced by
10.1177/1523422318756637
Connect, Refresh, and Energize: Enabling Organizational Innovation Capacities Through Self-Determination Theory
Lori J. Sipe (2018)
10.4337/9781785364860.00007
Service Innovation Research Methods
Flemming Brandt Sørensen (2017)
Frontline employees' role in service innovation and value creation
Jenny Karlsson (2018)
An exploration of signals as mechanisms in facilities management contracts
Brian Forbes (2015)
The Internet of Things as a co-creation tool in the fuzzy front end
Hendrik Mischo (2016)
10.1016/J.JHTM.2017.12.004
PRAXIS: the determining element of innovation behavior in the hospitality industry
Anastasios Zopiatis (2018)
10.1080/02642069.2016.1272594
Advanced information technology: transforming service innovation and design
Gabriela Bantau (2016)
10.1080/02642069.2020.1731477
Service innovation implementation: a systematic review and research agenda
Shiwangi Singh (2020)
Frontline employees as participants in service innovation processes : innovation by weaving
Marit Engen (2016)
10.1111/JPIM.12446
Innovation at the Service Encounter in Knowledge Intensive Business Services: Antecedents and Boundary Conditions
Vida Siahtiri (2018)
10.1108/JSM-04-2015-0156
Co-production of service experiences: insights from the cultural sector
Joanna Minkiewicz (2016)
Breeding a Culture of Experience Innovation : A Case Study of Co-Existing Values
Lori J. Sipe (2018)
10.1080/14479338.2018.1530565
Co-creation – child, sibling or adopted cousin of open innovation?
Anja Tekic (2019)
What makes a SaaS company cross the chasm? – Analysing factors that make customers purchase a freemium service
Haripriya Naidu (2019)
10.1080/15256480.2018.1547240
Towards An Experience Innovation Canvas: A Framework for Measuring Innovation in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry
Lori J. Sipe (2018)
Identifying critical service issues in the service encounter – a first step in the development of a conceptual model for the shipping industry
Claas Boomgaarden (2015)
Exploring the Roles of Front-Line Employees in the Service Innovation Process: A Service- Dominant Logic Perspective
Victoria Starkhammar (2017)
10.1109/IEEM.2015.7385946
Triggering an internal service innovation in manufacturing firms
Y. Y. Zhao (2015)
10.1108/INFO-09-2015-0044
Transaction costs and the sharing economy
Anders Henten (2015)
10.1007/978-4-431-54922-2_10
Innovation in Public Service Systems
Lars Fuglsang (2016)
10.1111/caim.12263
Casting for Service Innovation: The Roles of Frontline Employees
Marit Engen (2018)
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar