Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
Please confirm you are human
(Sign Up for free to never see this)
← Back to Search

Bioenergy Crops And Carbon Sequestration

R. Lemus, R. Lal
Published 2005 · Environmental Science

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions constitute a global problem. The need for agricultural involvement in GHG mitigation has been widely recognized since the 1990s. The concept of C sinks, C credits, and emission trading has attracted special interests in herbaceous and woody species as energy crops and source of biofuel feedstock. Bioenergy crops are defined as any plant material used to produce bioenergy. These crops have the capacity to produce large volume of biomass, high energy potential, and can be grown in marginal soils. Planting bioenergy crops in degraded soils is one of the promising agricultural options with C sequestration rates ranging from 0.6 to 3.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. About 60 million hectares (Mha) of land is available in the United States and 757 Mha in the world to grow bioenergy crops. With an energy offset of 1 kg of C in biomass per 0.6 kg of C in fossil fuel, there exists a vast potential of offsetting fossil fuel emission. Bioenergy crops have the potential to sequester approximately 318 Tg C yr−1 in the United States and 1631 Tg C yr−1 worldwide. Bioenergy crops consist of herbaceous bunch-type grasses and short-rotation woody perennials. Important grasses include switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), elephant grass (Pennissetum purpureum Schum.), tall fescue (Fetusca arundinacea L.), etc. Important among short-rotation woody perennials are poplar (Populus spp.), willow (Salix spp.), mesquite (Prosopis spp.), etc. The emissions of CO2 from using switchgrass as energy crop is 1.9 kg C Gj−1 compared with 13.8, 22.3, and 24.6 kg C Gj−1 from using gas, petroleum, and coal, respectively. Mitigation of GHG emissions cannot be achieved by C sinks alone, a substantial reduction in fossil fuel combustion will be necessary. Carbon sequestration and fossil fuel offset by bioenergy crops is an important component of a possible total societal response to a GHG emission reduction initiative.
This paper references
Cultivar and Fertility Effects on Switchgrass Biofuel Production in Southern Iowa
R. Lemus (2000)
Land-Use Change, and Forestry. A special report for the Intergovernmental Panel and Climate Change. Approved at IPCC Plenary, Montreal
J S I Ingram (2001)
Soil management on soil C sequestration by switchgrass
Z. Ma (2000)
10.1007/978-1-4757-0590-4
Biomass Energy Development
W. Smith (1986)
10.1080/713610854
Global Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect
R. Lal (2003)
10.2136/SSSAJ1988.03615995005200010037X
Compositional Differences in Organic Matter among Cultivated and Uncultivated Argiudolls and Hapludalfs Derived from Loess
H. Zhang (1988)
Soil organic C and N in rangeland soil under elevated CO2 and land management
C. W. Rice (2000)
10.1201/9780203739273-2
Stocks and dynamics of soil carbon following deforestation for pasture in Rondônia.
C. Neill (1998)
10.1007/BF00002062
Carbon and nitrogen cycling during old-field succession: Constraints on plant and microbial biomass
D. Zak (1990)
10.1016/J.RENENE.2003.11.018
Life cycle energy and environmental benefits of generating electricity from willow biomass
M. Heller (2004)
10.1016/S0167-1987(98)00105-6
Management effects on soil C storage on the Canadian prairies
H. Janzen (1998)
10.13031/2013.27709
Quantifying Changes in Soil Physical Properties from Soil and Crop Management: A Survey of Experts
Kyle R. Mankin (1996)
10.1029/2001GB001661
Potential soil carbon sequestration in overgrazed grassland ecosystems
R. Conant (2002)
10.2136/sssaj2001.653834x
Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont USA: I. Soil and Surface Residue Carbon and Sulfur
A. J. Franzluebbers (2001)
10.1007/BF02180317
The retention of organic matter in soils
J. Oades (1988)
10.1016/0961-9534(91)90021-4
Emissions of C02 from energy crop production
A. Turhollow (1991)
10.1007/BF00477097
Effects of forest management on soil carbon storage
D. W. Johnson (1992)
10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00074-7
Evaluation of soil organic carbon under forests, cool-season and warm-season grasses in the northeastern US
M. D. Corre (1999)
Carbon losses and sequestration potential of alternatives to slash and burn agriculture. In: The Biology and Fertility of Tropical Soils. TSBF, Nairobi
V. Rodrigues (2000)
Improved rangeland
A. J. 767–772. Ash (1995)
10.1016/S0167-1987(03)00121-1
Crop rotation and tillage impact on carbon sequestration in Canadian prairie soils
B. Mcconkey (2003)
World Atlas of Desertification. Published for UNEP by Arnold Publ
N Middelton (1997)
Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: Theoretical, potential, and achievable capacities globally
M G R Cannell (2003)
10.1126/science.247.4943.699
Effects on Carbon Storage of Conversion of Old-Growth Forests to Young Forests
M. Harmon (1990)
10.1007/BF00477101
Should we store carbon in trees?
G. Marland (1992)
10.1071/SR9850603
Decomposition of plant material in Australian soils. III. Residual organic and microbial biomass C and N from isotope-labelled legume material and soil organic matter, decomposing under field conditions
J. Ladd (1985)
10.2136/SSSAJ2004.1480
Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in a Tallgrass Prairie Soil under Elevated Carbon Dioxide
M. Williams (2004)
10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00180-5
Soil management concepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils
R. Follett (2001)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10073-3
Soil carbon changes associated with short-rotation systems
D. Grigal (1998)
10.15173/ESR.V4I3.284
Renewable Fuels and Electricity for a Growing World Economy: Defining and Achieving the Potential
T. Johansson (1993)
10.1016/S0167-1987(98)00122-6
Soil C and N changes on conservation reserve program lands in the Central Great Plains
J. Reeder (1998)
Carbon storage and root penetration in deep soils under small-farmer land-use systems in the eastern Amazon region
R. Sommer (2000)
10.2134/AGRONJ2004.1390
Bermudagrass management in the southern Piedmont USA. VIII: Soil pH and nutrient cations
A. J. Franzluebbers (2004)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)00027-5
Forests for Carbon Sequestration or Fossil Fuel Substitution? A Sensitivity Analysis
G. Marland (1997)
10.2134/JEQ2004.2390DUP
Soil Degradation in the United States
R. Koçyi̇ği̇t (2004)
10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00190-1
Carbon management and biodiversity.
M. Huston (2003)
10.2307/3060098
World atlas of desertification.
N. Middleton (1994)
Carbon Storage in Soil: The Ultimate No-Regrets Policy? A report to Greening Earth Society
D. E. Wojick (1999)
Main Causes of Dryland Soil Degradation by Region
FAO. (1997)
A Change of Climate
H. Mantel (1994)
10.1007/BF00000786
Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils
E. Davidson (1993)
10.2134/AGRONJ1999.914696X
Switchgrass biomass and chemical composition for biofuel in Eastern Canada.
I. Madakadze (1999)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10071-X
A review of soil erosion potential associated with biomass crops
J. Kort (1998)
10.1890/1051-0761(2001)011[0343:GMACIG]2.0.CO;2
GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT AND CONVERSION INTO GRASSLAND: EFFECTS ON SOIL CARBON
R. Conant (2001)
10.2136/SSSASPECPUB35.C1
Defining and Assessing Soil Quality
J. Doran (1994)
Soil carbon changes and nutrient cycling associated with switchgrass
R. C. Brown (1998)
Sunstrate flow in the rhizosphere
J. M. Lynch (1991)
The Global Extent of Soil Degradation
L. R. Oldeman (1992)
On line: http://www.fae.sk/Dieret/Biomass/biomass.html Bransby
Ecol. Applic (2004)
Carbon and nitrogen cycling during old-field succession: Constrains on plant and microbial productivity
D. E. Zak (1990)
Soil Carbon Sequestration under Two Dedicated Perennial Bioenergy Crops . Research Reports . Resource Efficient Agricultural Production ( REAP ) - Canada
N. Middelton (1998)
10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012[1688:CIESAF]2.0.CO;2
CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ALONG A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF RESTORED GRASSLANDS
S. Baer (2002)
10.2134/ASASPECPUB56.C4
Alternatives to Slash and Burn Agriculture
J. Ragland (1993)
Biomass: An overview in the United States of America
T. Robertson (1993)
10.1016/S0961-9534(99)00034-3
Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply
J. Johansson (1999)
Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset
M.G.R. 2023–2031. Cannell (2003)
10.1016/S0167-1987(99)00051-3
Tillage effects on soil organic carbon distribution and storage in a silt loam soil in Illinois
X. Yang (1999)
10.1098/rstb.2007.2185
Carbon sequestration
R. Lal (2007)
10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199801/02)9:1<81::AID-LDR267>3.0.CO;2-R
Interaction of tree crops with a sodic soil environment: potential for rehabilitation of degraded environments
V. Garg (1998)
10.1016/S0961-9534(01)00008-3
Impact of row spacing, nitrogen rate, and time on carbon partitioning of switchgrass
Z. Ma (2001)
10.2134/JEQ2000.00472425002900020036X
Soil carbon dynamics beneath switchgrass as indicated by stable isotope analysis.
Charles T. Garten (2000)
10.1023/A:1004772301158
Carbon storage and root penetration in deep soils under small-farmer land-use systems in the Eastern Amazon region, Brazil
R. Sommer (2004)
Population Division, World Population Prospects 1950-2050 (The 1996 Revision), on diskette
(1996)
10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00211-1
Soil carbon dynamics in cropland and rangeland.
R. Lal (2002)
10.1016/S0961-9534(99)00076-8
Impacts of soil management on root characteristics of switchgrass
Z. Ma (2000)
10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00150-9
Soil CO2 flux in a tallgrass prairie
P. Mielnick (2000)
10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00273-5
Carbon sequestration in perennial bioenergy, annual corn and uncultivated systems in southern Quebec
Claudia S Zan (2001)
10.1016/s0961-9534(00)00011-8
Bioenergy in the United States: progress and possibilities11Based on the final report for NREL Subcontract No. ACD-5-15212-01 with the National Audubon Society.
Jim Cook (2000)
10.2307/1939893
Comparative Analyses of Carbon Dynamics in Native and Cultivated Ecosystems.
G. Buyanovsky (1987)
Carbon sequestration : What ’ s the best approach ?
R. N. Sampson (2000)
10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00145-1
Managing carbon sequestration in soils: concepts and terminology
John J. A. Ingram (2001)
10.1016/0961-9534(93)90038-6
Soil carbon sequestration beneath hybrid poplar plantations in the North Central United States
E. A. Hansen (1993)
Carbon storage and recycling in short-rotation energy crops
J. Ranney (1991)
10.7748/ns.12.30.63.s54
A change of climate.
Tanja Hueber (1998)
10.1023/A:1017575018866
Soil Carbon: Policy and Economics
G. Marland (2001)
10.2134/AGRONJ2002.9300
Assessing soil carbon sequestration in turfgrass systems using long-term soil testing data
Y. Qian (2002)
Carbon sequestration: What’s the best approach? In: Carbon: Exploring the Benefits to Farmers and Society
R. N. Sampson (2000)
Carbon dynamics and microbial activity in tallgrass prairie ecosystem exposed to elevated CO2 for 8 years
M. A. Williams (2000)
10.2136/SSSAJ2002.9240
Cultivation-Induced Effects on Belowground Biomass and Organic Carbon
N. Slobodian (2002)
10.1016/0038-0717(92)90084-B
Dissolved organic carbon in old field soils : total amounts as a measure of available resources for soil mineralization
B. Cook (1992)
Biomass energy development and carbon dioxide mitigation options
D. Hall (1995)
10.1201/9780203739273-34
Modeling soil carbon and agricultural practices in the central U.S.: an update of preliminary study results.
A. Donigian (1998)
Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics under switchgrass: Integration of Field Data and Modeling to Ensure Sustainability
C. T. Garten (2001)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10066-6
Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy.
S. Mclaughlin (1995)
Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products from Agriculture
R. C. Brown (2003)
10.1023/A:1004213929699
The capacity of soils to preserve organic C and N by their association with clay and silt particles
J. Hassink (2004)
10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00215-9
Soil carbon dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.
G. E. Schuma (2002)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10065-4
Short-rotation woody crop supply systems in the United States: what do we know and what do we need to know?
G. Tuskan (1998)
Carbon storage in switchgrass and short-rotation willow plantations
C. Zan (1997)
10.1071/SR9840331
Decomposition of plant material in Australian soils. II. Residual organic 14C and 15N from legume plant parts decomposing under field and laboratory conditions
M. Amato (1984)
10.2136/SSSAJ1998.03615995006200050031X
Retention and Turnover of Corn Residue Carbon in Some Eastern Canadian Soils
B. C. Liang (1998)
Land Use. Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)
(2004)
Making a business from biomass in energy, environment, chemicals, fibers, and materials : proceedings of the 3rd Biomass Conference of the Americas, Montréal, Québec, Canada, August 24-29, 1997
R. Overend (1997)
10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00103-4
Carbon sequestration and biomass energy offset: theoretical, potential and achievable capacities globally, in Europe and the UK
M. Cannell (2003)
10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00013-1
Soil management impacts on soil carbon sequestration by switchgrass
Z. Ma (2000)
10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00262-7
Changes in soil quality and below-ground carbon storage with conversion of traditional agricultural crop lands to bioenergy crop production.
V. R. Tolber (2002)
Switchgrass as an Energy Crop: Fertilization, Cultivar, and Cutting Management
R. Lemus (2004)
10.1023/A:1024898615284
Biomass, carbon and nitrogen dynamics of multi-species riparian buffers within an agricultural watershed in Iowa, USA
A. Tufekcioglu (2004)
Agricultural Influences on Carbon Emissions and Sequestration: A Review of Evidence and the Emerging Trading Options
J. Pretty (2001)
10.1046/J.1365-2486.2000.00308.X
Soil carbon sequestration and land‐use change: processes and potential
W. Post (2000)
10.1016/S0961-9534(97)10074-5
A review of carbon and nitrogen balances in switchgrass grown for energy
D. I. Bransby (1998)
Improved rangeland management and its implications for C sequestration
A. J. Ash (1995)
Changes in ecosys
S. G. Utah. Baer (2002)
10.1097/00010694-198611000-00006
CHANGES IN SOIL CARBON STORAGE AFTER CULTIVATION
L. Mann (1986)
Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Products
R. C. 379–384. Brown (2003)
10.1097/00010694-199501000-00011
Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment
Robert L. Late (1995)
Combustion of fossil fuel, using thermo utilities, MS Excel add-ins
Taftan Data. (1998)
10.1021/ES010963D
High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses.
S. Mclaughlin (2002)
10.1016/s0140-6701(98)96595-x
Evaluating physical, chemical, and energetic properties of perennial grasses as biofuels
S. Mclaughlin (1996)
10.1029/2002GB001918
Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: Implications for soil carbon sequestration
Charles T. Garten (2002)
10.1029/94GB00767
Modeling carbon biogeochemistry in agricultural soils
C. Li (1994)
Potential of short rotation wood crops as a fiber and energy source in the U.S
M. E. Walsh (1999)
10.1023/A:1026590001307
Carbon dynamics and microbial activity in tallgrass prairie exposed to elevated CO2 for 8 years
M. Williams (2004)
10.2136/SSSAJ1981.03615995004500040018X
Particle Size Fractions and Their Use in Studies of Soil Organic Matter: I. The Nature and Distribution of Forms of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur1
D. Anderson (1981)
10.2136/sssaj2004.0142
Bermudagrass Management in the Southern Piedmont USA: VII. Soil-Profile Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen
A. Franzluebbers (2001)
Agricultural options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions
V. Cole (1996)
10.1097/00010694-199910000-00002
Carbon storage after long-term grass establishment on degraded soils
K. Potter (1999)
Climate Change 2001 : Impacts , Adaptation and Vulnerability . IPCC Third Assessment Report . Intergovernmental Panel in Climate Change
H. H. Janzen (2001)
10.1016/S0961-9534(02)00167-8
Enhancing the soil organic matter pool through biomass incorporation
F. Sanchez (2003)
Carbon storage in the U.S. caused by land use change
S. W. Pacala (2001)
Community outreach and education: Key components of the Salix Consortium’s willow biomass project
T. A. Volk (1999)
10.2136/SSSAJ2000.641190X
Carbon Dynamics of Surface Residue– and Root‐derived Organic Matter under Simulated No‐till
W. Gale (2000)
10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00381-8
Uncertainties and novel prospects in the study of the soil carbon dynamics.
Y. Wang (2002)
10.1017/cbo9781107415386
Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.
S. Schiavon (2007)
Soil Carbon Sequestration under Two Dedicated Perennial Bioenergy Crops
B. Mehdi (1998)
10.2136/SSSAJ2004.1403
Crop Cover Root Channels May Alleviate Soil Compaction Effects on Soybean Crop
S. Williams (2004)
Soil carbon dynamics in crop and rangeland
R. Lal (2002)



This paper is referenced by
10.1111/gcbb.12349
Variation in leaf‐level photosynthesis among switchgrass genotypes exposed to low temperatures does not scale with final biomass yield
Á. Cordero (2017)
Creating agricultural systems that both mitigate and adapt to climate change
Cici S. Zahra (2013)
10.15376/BIORES.10.1.647-659
Physicochemical Properties of Camellia Nut Shell and its Thermal Degradation Characteristics
J. Zhang (2014)
10.4236/AJPS.2013.412A1003
Distribution and Quantity of Root Systems of Field-Grown Erianthus and Napier Grass
Nobuhito Sekiya (2013)
10.4155/bfs.12.51
The potential for floodplains to sustain biomass feedstock production systems
S. Bardhan (2012)
10.1016/j.virusres.2010.02.003
Genomic diversity of sweet potato geminiviruses in a Brazilian germplasm bank.
T. Paprotka (2010)
10.1080/15226514.2019.1647404
Productivity and cost-effectiveness of short-rotation hardwoods on various land types in the southeastern USA
Solomon B Ghezehei (2019)
THE INQUIRY IN TAXATION CULTURE AND ANALYSIS OF THE REASONS FOR INSOLVENCY IN TAXPAYERS
Morteza Dadgostar Moghadam (2016)
10.1016/J.GLOPLACHA.2015.12.008
Is extensive terrestrial carbon dioxide removal a ‘green’ form of geoengineering? A global modelling study
V. Heck (2016)
10.1016/J.EGYPRO.2015.02.062
Thermal Behaviour of Corn/Cotton Stalk Blends during Co-pyrolysis
Xing Xian-jun (2015)
10.1111/gcbb.12036
Global biomass potentials under sustainability restrictions defined by the European Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC
V. Schueler (2013)
10.1007/s12155-015-9690-2
Soil Erosion Mitigation by Perennial Species Under Mediterranean Environment
S. Cosentino (2015)
10.4236/AJPS.2014.511186
Cultivation of Erianthus and Napier Grass at an Abandoned Mine in Lampung, Indonesia
Nobuhito Sekiya (2014)
10.4141/CJSS2011-010
Influence of root growth of two pioneering plant species on soil development during the initial stage of ecosystem genesis in the Lusatian post mining landscape
BoldtKatja (2012)
Sustainable cropping of reed canary grass for energy use
K. E. Epie (2015)
10.1007/s11104-008-9695-0
Characterisation of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) roots under different growing conditions
S. Amaducci (2008)
10.1079/PAVSNNR20072064
Challenges for deploying dedicated, large-scale, bioenergy systems in the USA.
J. Fike (2007)
An Investigation of Biological Carbon Sequestration at the Pea Ridge National Military Park
Dorine Reed Bower (2017)
10.1080/00103624.2011.546926
Nutrient Partitioning and Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization of Switchgrass Plant Parts
H. Shahandeh (2011)
10.4236/AJPS.2013.45124
Confirmation of Pearl Millet-Napiergrass Hybrids Using EST-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers
Charlie D. Dowling (2013)
10.4236/JSBS.2013.33028
Quantifying Hydrologic and Water Quality Responses to Bioenergy Crops in Town Creek Watershed in Mississippi
P. Parajuli (2013)
10.14288/1.0165978
Evapotranspiration, surface conductance and water-use efficiency of two young hybrid-poplar plantations in Canada's aspen parkland
H. Jones (2014)
10.1007/978-3-319-33628-2_8
Competition for Land-Based Ecosystem Services: Trade-Offs and Synergies
Daniel Mueller (2016)
10.1093/pcp/pcs040
Characterization of a novel Y2K-type dehydrin VrDhn1 from Vigna radiata.
Chia-Hui Lin (2012)
Computational modelling of the relationship between Miscanthus genotype, phenotype and environment
M. Squance (2014)
10.1016/J.ENPOL.2013.04.009
Environmental and life cycle analysis of a biodiesel production line from sunflower in the Province of Siena (Italy)
D. Spinelli (2013)
10.1111/gcbb.12046
Biochar in bioenergy cropping systems: impacts on soil faunal communities and linked ecosystem processes
Sarah A. McCormack (2013)
10.3390/ijms21113993
The Osmotin-Like Protein Gene PdOLP1 Is Involved in Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis during Wood Formation in Poplar
S. Li (2020)
10.1016/j.virol.2016.03.014
The recombination mediator RAD51D promotes geminiviral infection.
K. S. Richter (2016)
10.1007/S10806-009-9218-X
Biofuels: Efficiency, Ethics, and Limits to Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Services
T. Gomiero (2010)
10.23919/ICUE-GESD.2018.8635740
Calophyllum inophyllum for Green Energy and Landscape Restoration: Plant Growth, Biofuel Content, Associate Waste Utilization and Agroforestry Prospect
B. Leksono (2018)
10.5772/INTECHOPEN.82090
Increasing the Amount of Biomass in Field Crops for Carbon Sequestration and Plant Biomass Enhancement Using Biochar
S. Wijitkosum (2018)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar