Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Tar Level Of Cigarettes Smoked And Risk Of Smoking-related Diseases

P. Lee
Published 2018 · Chemistry, Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Abstract Background: Opinions differ on the relationship between tar level and risk of smoking-related disease. However, except for lung cancer, few reviews have evaluated the epidemiological evidence. Here the relationship of tar level to risk of the four main smoking-related diseases is considered. Methods: Papers comparing risk of lung cancer, COPD, heart disease or stroke in smokers of lower and higher tar yield cigarettes were identified from reviews and searches, relative risk estimates being extracted comparing the lowest and highest tar groups. Meta-analyses investigated heterogeneity by various study characteristics. Results: Twenty-six studies were identified, nine of prospective design and 17 case–control. Two studies grouped cigarettes by nicotine rather than tar. Seventeen studies gave results for lung cancer, 16 for heart disease, five for stroke and four for COPD. Preferring relative risks adjusted for daily amount smoked, where adjusted and unadjusted estimates were available, combined estimates for lowest versus highest tar (or nicotine) groups were 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.70–0.88) for lung cancer, 0.86 (0.81–0.91) for heart disease, 0.77 (0.62–0.95) for stroke and 0.81 (0.65–1.02) for COPD. Lower risks were generally evident in subgroups by publication period, gender, study design, location and extent of confounder adjustment. Estimates were similar preferring data unadjusted for amount smoked or excluding nicotine-based estimates. Conclusions: Despite evidence that smokers substantially compensate for reduced cigarette yields, the results clearly show lower risks in lower tar smokers. Limitations of the evidence are discussed, but seem unlikely to affect this conclusion.
This paper references
10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.07.023
Investigation into the risk of ultra‐low tar cigarettes and lung cancer☆
P. Lee (2017)
10.1097/01.hjr.0000244574.17853.ed
Tar yield and risk of acute myocardial infarction: pooled analysis from three case-control studies
S. Gallus (2007)
10.1093/JNCI/71.3.435
Tar yields of cigarettes and male lung cancer risk.
C. Vutuc (1983)
10.1186/1471-2407-12-385
Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer
P. Lee (2012)
10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.09.008
Smoking behaviour and compensation: a review of the literature with meta-analysis.
G. Scherer (2014)
10.1056/NEJM198906153202401
"Low yield" cigarettes and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction in women.
J. Palmer (1989)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.AJE.A115185
Tar content of cigarettes in relation to lung cancer.
D. Kaufman (1989)
10.1080/08958370390228547
Review Article Fifty Years' Experience of Reduced-Tar Cigarettes: What Do We Know About Their Health Effects?
G. Kabat (2003)
10.1016/0091-7435(91)90060-H
Cigarette smoking and mortality
L. Kuller (1991)
10.1002/1097-0142(19880915)62:6<1223::AID-CNCR2820620630>3.0.CO;2-6
The effect of low‐yield cigarette smoking on lung cancer risk
E. Wynder (1988)
10.1080/08958370490490185
Does Increased Cigarette Consumption Nullify Any Reduction in Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Low-Tar Filter Cigarettes?
P. Lee (2004)
Facilitating metaanalyses by deriving relative effect and precision estimates for alternative comparisons from a set of estimates presented by exposure level or disease
M. uhl (2008)
10.1136/jech.35.1.16
Mortality and type of cigarette smoked.
P. Lee (1981)
10.1186/1471-2466-11-36
Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema
B. Forey (2011)
10.1080/089583701753210353
LUNG CANCER AND TYPE OF CIGARETTE SMOKED
P. Lee (2001)
10.1136/jech.39.4.286
Risks of lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke in relation to type of cigarette smoked.
M. Alderson (1985)
Cigarette smoking and male lung cancer in an area of very high incidence
CR Gillis (1988)
10.1378/chest.123.1_suppl.21s
Epidemiology of lung cancer.
A. Alberg (2003)
10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00367-1
Is compulsory restriction of tar yield of cigarettes a worthwhile public health policy?
M. Woodward (2001)
International Smoking Statistics. A collection of worldwide historical data
B Forey (2006)
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health
(2014)
10.1093/IJE/23.3.437
Differential effects of tar content, type of tobacco and use of a filter on lung cancer risk in male cigarette smokers.
S. Benhamou (1994)
10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.09.019
The effect of time changes in diagnosing lung cancer type on its recorded distribution, with particular reference to adenocarcinoma.
P. Lee (2016)
10.1002/ijc.30632
Case‐control study of cumulative cigarette tar exposure and lung and upper aerodigestive tract cancers
Travis J. Meyers (2017)
Risks associated with smoking cigarettes with low machine-measured yields of tar and nicotine. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services
(2001)
Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in women: results of the French ICARE case-control study. Lung Cancer 74:369–77
S ee (2011)
10.1136/jech.42.1.38
Cigarette smoking and male lung cancer in an area of very high incidence. I. Report of a case-control study in the West of Scotland.
C. Gillis (1988)
10.21767/2572-309X.100014
Possible Explanations for the Observed Rise in the Incidence of Lung Adenocarcinoma relative to that of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma
P. Lee (2016)
10.1136/tc.10.suppl_1.i4
Health impact of “reduced yield” cigarettes: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence
M. Thun (2001)
10.1016/0091-7435(82)90033-0
Lung cancer risk in women in relation to tar yields of cigarettes.
C. Vutuc (1982)
Self-reported smoking, cigarette yields and inhalation biochemistry related to the incidence of coronary heart disease: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study.
M. Woodward (1999)
10.1056/NEJM198302243080801
Nicotine and carbon monoxide content of cigarette smoke and the risk of myocardial infarction in young men.
D. Kaufman (1983)
10.1111/DAR.12309
The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General, 2014Us Department of Health and Human Services Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for: Critique
R. Courtney (2015)
Dosimetric studies of compensatory cigarette smoking
Benowitz NL. (1989)
10.1016/0091-7435(88)90002-3
Smoking and lung cancer: risk as a function of cigarette tar content.
H. Wilcox (1988)
10.1002/IJC.2910330504
Patterns of lung cancer risk according to type of cigarette smoked
J. Lubin (1984)
10.1007/BF00051707
A prospective study of cigarette tar yield and lung cancer
S. Sidney (2004)
10.1023/A:1008931526525
Prospective study of smoking, antioxidant intake, and lung cancer in middle-aged women (USA)
F. Speizer (2004)
10.1016/0091-7435(85)90037-4
Respiratory morbidity in smokers of low- and high-yield cigarettes.
D. Petitti (1985)
10.1037/e719982007-001
Clearing the smoke: assessing the science base for tobacco harm reduction.
K. Stratton (2001)
10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.11.016
Time trends in never smokers in the relative frequency of the different histological types of lung cancer, in particular adenocarcinoma.
P. Lee (2016)
10.2105/AJPH.80.8.954
The relationship of smoking cessation to coronary heart disease and lung cancer in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT).
J. Ockene (1990)
10.1136/jech.36.2.113
Cigarettes, lung cancer, and coronary heart disease: the effects of inhalation and tar yield.
T. Higenbottam (1982)
10.1002/SIM.3013
Facilitating meta-analyses by deriving relative effect and precision estimates for alternative comparisons from a set of estimates presented by exposure level or disease category.
Jan S. Hamling (2008)
10.1007/s10552-010-9660-0
Do changes in cigarette design influence the rise in adenocarcinoma of the lung?
D. Burns (2010)
10.1136/BMJ.311.7003.471
Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction: 14,000 cases and 32,000 controls in the United Kingdom. The International Studies of Infarct Survival (ISIS) Collaborators.
S. Parish (1995)
10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.12.006
Estimating the decline in excess risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following quitting smoking - a systematic review based on the negative exponential model.
P. Lee (2014)
female; B: both sexes. Study 1, M, 1960-66 follow-up Study 1, M, 1966-72 follow-up Study 1, F, 1960-66 follow-up Study 1, F
M male (1966)
10.1037/e510072014-001
The Health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress : a report of the Surgeon General
B. Lushniak (2014)
10.1006/PMED.1999.0557
Smoking and acute myocardial infarction among women and men: A case-control study in Italy.
C. Bosetti (1999)
10.1093/JNCI/73.2.383
Assessment of lung cancer risk factors by histologic category.
J. Lubin (1984)
10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.06.009
Estimating the effect of differing assumptions on the population health impact of introducing a Reduced Risk Tobacco Product in the USA
P. Lee (2017)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6601565
Filter cigarette smoking and lung cancer risk; a hospital-based case–control study in Japan
T. Marugame (2004)
10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.04.013
Cigarette smoking and lung cancer in women: results of the French ICARE case-control study.
Alexandra Papadopoulos (2011)
Systematic review with metaanalysis of the epidemiological evidence relating smoking to COPD, chronic bronchitis and emphysema
BA Forey (2011)
10.1136/bmj.306.6892.1567
Tar yield of cigarettes and risk of acute myocardial infarction. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators.
E. Negri (1993)
10.1186/1471-2458-11-273
Association of daily tar and nicotine intake with incident myocardial infarction: Results from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort Study 1984 - 2002
Qiuli Zhang (2011)
10.7916/D8PR7T5N
Smoking and lung cancer in women: findings in a prospective study.
L. Garfinkel (1988)
10.1136/BMJ.37936.585382.44
Cigarette tar yields in relation to mortality from lung cancer in the cancer prevention study II prospective cohort, 1982-8.
J. Harris (2004)
10.1136/bmj.311.7019.1530
Mortality in relation to tar yield of cigarettes: a prospective study of four cohorts
J. Tang (1995)
10.1016/0013-9351(76)90036-0
"Tar" and nicotine content of cigarette smoke in relation to death rates.
E. Hammond (1976)
10.1016/0021-9681(85)90047-5
Cardiovascular and other diseases in smokers of low yield cigarettes.
D. Petitti (1985)
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0468
Influence of Type of Cigarette on Peripheral versus Central Lung Cancer
D. Brooks (2005)
Risk of lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke in relation to type of cigarette smoked, passive smoking and other factors
MR Alderson (1986)
10.1016/0895-4356(91)90261-7
Meta-analysis in epidemiology, with special reference to studies of the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer: a critique.
J. Fleiss (1991)
10.1001/ARCHINTE.162.3.300
Cigarette yield and the risk of myocardial infarction in smokers.
W. Sauer (2002)
10.1023/A:1021276932160
Alcohol, smoking, coffee and risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in Italy
A. Tavani (2004)
10.1016/j.soc.2016.02.001
Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.
Y. Mao (2016)
Cigarette smoking and mortality. MRFIT Research Group.
L. Kuller (1991)
10.1007/978-1-4471-0769-9_40
Cigarette smoking, tar yields, and non-fatal myocardial infarction : 14000 cases and 32000 controls in the United Kingdom
S. Parish (1995)



This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar