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Wheat

Florian Diekmann
Published 2009 ·

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Wheat is world’s most widely cultivated food crop and in India is the second important staple cereal food. As a rabi season (winter) crop, wheat played vital role in stabilizing the food grain production in the country. It is mostly eaten in the form of chapaties. Besides, wheat is also consumed in various other forms such as poories, dalia, halwa, sweet meals etc. In areas where rice is the staple food, wheat is used in the form of upma or poories. Wheat is also used for manufacturing of bread, flakes, cakes, biscuits etc. Wheat contains more protein [8-15% (grain), 8-13% (flour)] than other cereals. Wheat proteins are of special significance. Besides their significance in nutrition, these are principally concerned with providing the characteristic substance ‘gluten’, which is very essential for backers. Wheat straw is good source of feed for livestock in our country. Geographic Distribution Wheat is grown globally in 217 m ha area with a total production of 632 million tonnes. The area remained constant at about 220 m ha in the past 3 decades, however, the production has increased from 355 million tonnes (1975) to the present level owing to enhanced productivity. Though it is grown on largest acreage in India, but the total production is highest in China. The area, production and productivity in major countries of the world and states of India are given below in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. Table 1.Major wheat producing countries of world



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