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The 193-Kd Vault Protein, Vparp, Is A Novel Poly(Adp-Ribose) Polymerase

V. Kickhoefer, A. Siva, N. Kedersha, E. Inman, Cristina Ruland, M. Streuli, L. Rome
Published 1999 · Biology, Medicine

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Mammalian vaults are ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, composed of a small ribonucleic acid and three proteins of 100, 193, and 240 kD in size. The 100-kD major vault protein (MVP) accounts for >70% of the particle mass. We have identified the 193-kD vault protein by its interaction with the MVP in a yeast two-hybrid screen and confirmed its identity by peptide sequence analysis. Analysis of the protein sequence revealed a region of ∼350 amino acids that shares 28% identity with the catalytic domain of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). PARP is a nuclear protein that catalyzes the formation of ADP-ribose polymers in response to DNA damage. The catalytic domain of p193 was expressed and purified from bacterial extracts. Like PARP, this domain is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction; thus, the 193-kD protein is a new PARP. Purified vaults also contain the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation activity, indicating that the assembled particle retains enzymatic activity. Furthermore, we show that one substrate for this vault-associated PARP activity is the MVP. Immunofluorescence and biochemical data reveal that p193 protein is not entirely associated with the vault particle, suggesting that it may interact with other protein(s). A portion of p193 is nuclear and localizes to the mitotic spindle.
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