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A Randomized, Controlled, Phase II Trial Comparing Escalating Doses Of Subcutaneous Interleukin-2 Plus Antiretrovirals Versus Antiretrovirals Alone In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients With CD4+ Cell Counts >/=350/mm3.

M. Losso, W. Belloso, S. Emery, J. Benetucci, P. Cahn, M. Lasala, G. Lopardo, H. Salomón, M. Saracco, E. Nelson, M. Law, R. Davey, M. Allende, H. Lane
Published 2000 · Medicine

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A total of 73 patients with baseline CD4+ cell counts >/=350 cells/mm3 who were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) were randomized to receive subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2; n=36) in addition to ART or to continue ART alone (n=37). Subcutaneous IL-2 was delivered at 1 of 3 doses (1.5 million international units ¿MIU, 4.5 MIU, and 7.5 MIU per dose) by twice-daily injection for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks. After 24 weeks, the time-weighted mean change from baseline CD4+ cell count was 210 cells/mm3 for recipients of subcutaneous IL-2, compared with 29 cells/mm3 for recipients of ART alone (P<.001). There were no significant differences between treatment groups for measures of plasma human immunodeficiency virus RNA (P=.851). Subcutaneous IL-2 delivered at doses of 4.5 MIU and 7.5 MIU resulted in significant increases in CD4+ cell count (P=.006 and P<.001, respectively), compared with that seen in control patients. These changes were not significant in the 1.5 MIU dose group compared with that in the control patients (P=.105). Side effects that occurred from subcutaneous IL-2 administration were generally low grade, of short duration, and readily managed in an outpatient environment.
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