Men As Caregivers At The End Of Life.
Erik K. Fromme, Linda L Drach, Susan W. Tolle, Patricia L Ebert, Pamela O'Dell Miller, Nancy Perrin, Virginia Peterson Tilden
Published 2005 · Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
BACKGROUND Few studies have focused on men as caregivers at the end-of-life. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to examine the experiences of men involved in end-of-life caregiving, focusing on caregiver strain. METHODS We used a random sample of Oregon death certificates to telephone survey family caregivers of Oregonians who had died 2 to 5 months earlier in private homes, nursing homes, and other community-based settings. Measurements included single-item indicators and embedded scales to measure caregiver strain and perceived decedent symptom distress. For the 25 husbands, sons, wives, and daughters who reported the highest levels of strain, we also analyzed caregivers' description of the decedent's last few days of life. RESULTS The sample included 1384 caregiver interviews from a pool of 3048 death certificates. Men constituted 29% of the caregivers, including 15% sons, 9% husbands, and 5% others. In a linear regression model, male gender was a significant predictor of lower caregiver strain (p < 0.001). The strongest predictor of high end-of-life caregiver strain was the severity of the decedents' symptom distress. The qualitative analysis revealed that men used fewer words than women did to describe their experiences, and, despite subsequently reporting the highest levels of caregiving strain, only 15% of men spontaneously mentioned their own struggles. CONCLUSIONS As caregivers at the end of life, men are less common and less likely to report caregiver strain and decedent symptom distress. Health care professionals should actively ask men about these issues and listen carefully, as their responses may be brief and understated.
This paper references
Widowhood and depression: explaining long-term gender differences in vulnerability.
Debra Umberson (1992)
Family factors influencing cancer pain management.
Betty Ferrell (1991)
Validation of a Caregiver Strain Index.
Betsy C. Robinson (1983)
Mortality of bereavement.
William D Rees (1967)
Living alone, marital status, gender and health
Duncan Cramer (1993)
Service utilization and support provision of caregiving men.
Lenard W. Kaye (2002)
Gender differences in caregiving: fact or artifact?
Bess Miller (1992)
Men as caregivers: An overview
B. Kramer (2002)
Caregiver well-being: a multidimensional examination of family caregivers of demented adults.
Linda K. George (1986)
Older Men and the Family Caregiving Orientation
Lenard W. Kaye (1994)
Assistance from family members, friends, paid care givers, and volunteers in the care of terminally ill patients.
Ezekiel J. Emanuel (1999)
Out-of-hospital death: advance care planning, decedent symptoms, and caregiver burden.
Virginia Peterson Tilden (2004)
Parental Caregiving by Adult Children.
Eleanor Palo Stoller (1983)
Serving older men: Dilemmas and opportunities for geriatric care managers
A Barusch (2002)
F. G. (1906)
Sons and daughters as caregivers to older parents: differences in role performance and consequences.
Amy Horowitz (1985)
Sex differentials in health and mortality.
Lois M. Verbrugge (1987)
Correlates of Community Service Attitudes Among Family Caregivers
Manfred Stommel (1999)
Sampling Challenges in End-of-Life Research: Case-Finding for Family Informants
Virginia Peterson Tilden (2002)
End-of-life care and the effects of bereavement on family caregivers of persons with dementia.
Richard Schulz (2003)
Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health Investigators: End-of-life care and the effects of bereavement on family caregivers of persons with dementia
R Schulz (1942)
The loneliness of the long-term care giver.
Carol Levine (1999)
Marital status and health among the elderly.
Noreen Goldman (1995)
Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: the Caregiver Health Effects Study.
Richard Schulz (1999)
Emotional Expression in Husbands and Wives.
Clifford I. Notarius (1982)
Mortality after bereavement.
Knud J. Helsing (1981)
Who suffers more? Sex differences in health risks of the widowed.
Margaret S Stroebe (1983)
Service Use, Caregiving Mastery, and Attitudes Toward Community Services
Baila Miller (1999)
"Women in the middle" and family help to older people.
Elaine M. Brody (1981)
Lutkins SG: Mortality of bereavement
WD Rees (1967)
Understanding Economic and Other Burdens of Terminal Illness: The Experience of Patients and Their Caregivers
Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2000)
Caregivers for dementia patients: a comparison of husbands and wives.
Melinda Dell Fitting (1986)
Some epidemiologic aspects of the high mortality rate in the young widowed group.
Arthur S. Kraus (1959)
Explaining gender differences in caregiver distress: the roles of emotional attentiveness and coping styles.
S M Lutzky (1994)
The Impact of Serious Illness on Patients' Families
Kenneth E. Covinsky (1994)
Family Support Groups for Male Caregivers
Lenard W. Kaye (1994)
Gender differences in parent care: demographic factors and same-gender preferences.
Gary R. Lee (1993)
Risk factors in bereavement outcome: A methodological and empirical review.
Wolfgang Stroebe (2001)
Men as elder caregivers: a response to changing families.
Lenard W. Kaye (1990)
SUICIDE IN THE WIDOWED.
Brian Macmahon (1965)
The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress.
Russell K. Portenoy (1994)
Involvement in caregiving and adjustment to death of a spouse: findings from the caregiver health effects study.
Richard Schulz (2001)
Family reports of dying patients' distress: the adaptation of a research tool to assess global symptom distress in the last week of life.
Susan E. Hickman (2001)
Gender differences in psychiatric morbidity among family caregivers: a review and analysis.
J L Yee (2000)
This paper is referenced by
Invisible cornerstones. A hermeneutic study of the experience of care partners of older people with mental health problems in home care services
Camilla Anker-Hansen (2019)
Part 2: Home-based family caregiving at the end of life: a comprehensive review of published qualitative research (1998-2008)
Laura M Funk (2010)
End of Life Care in the Home: Supporting and Sustaining Family Carers
Jacqueline Rose Bowden-Tucker (2012)
Men as caregivers of the elderly: support for the contributions of sons
Cynthia R. Collins (2014)
ADULT CHILDREN CARING FOR THEIR ELDERLY PARENTS
Truls Østbye (2010)
A Phenomenological Study of Single Fathers of Children with Autism in Trinidad
Merisha Shirwell Margaret Seepersad (2016)
Spouse cancer caregivers’ burden and distress at entry to home hospice
Maija Reblin (2016)
Caring for a Dying Partner: The Male Experience
Rebecca Judd (2019)
Supporting lay carers in end of life care: current gaps and future priorities
Gunn Grande (2009)
Male Caregivers Report Problems in Caring at Home After Spouses Survive Stroke
Linda L. Pierce (2019)
The social support systems and quality of life indicators of Jewish seniors living in Milnerton and surrounds
Sue Parton (2007)
A Model of Caregiving Through the End of Life
Janice Penrod (2012)
Palliative and end of life care for people with diabetes: a topical issue
Trisha Dunning (2014)
Life patterns of family caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Peggy Z Shipley (2012)
Examining the support needs of older male spousal caregivers of people with a long-term condition: A systematic review of the literature.
Anne Fee (2020)
Gender and family caregiving at the end-of-life in the context of old age: A systematic review
Tessa Morgan (2016)
The male familial caregiver experience of caring for persons with Alzheimer’s disease from low socio-economic status: A South African perspective
Abeedah Hendricks-Lalla (2018)
Caregiving at the margins: An ethnographic exploration of family caregivers experiences providing care for structurally vulnerable populations at the end-of-life
Kelli I Stajduhar (2020)
Expectations to and evaluation of a palliative home-care team as seen by patients and carers
Dorthe Goldschmidt (2006)
Receiving end of life care at home: experiences of the bereaved carers of cancer patients cared for by health care assistants
Daniel F Munday (2013)
Informal caregivers of advanced-stage cancer patients: Every second is at risk for psychiatric morbidity
Tamara Rumpold (2015)
Sex and Care: The Evolutionary Psychological Explanations for Sex Differences in Formal Care Occupations
Peter Kay Chai Tay (2019)
Caregiving at the End of Life
John G. Bruhn (2014)
The Male Face of Caregiving
Carole A Robinson (2014)
Social Representation of Dementia and Its Influence on the Search for Early Care by Family Member Caregivers
Teresa Juárez-Cedillo (2014)
Exploring the daily geographies of diverse men caregiving for family members with multiple chronic conditions
Melissa Giesbrecht (2016)
Men do care! : A gender-aware and masculinity-informed contribution to caregiving scholarship
Veronika Wallroth (2016)
A Feminist Quality Appraisal Tool: exposing gender bias and gender inequities in health research
Tessa Morgan (2017)
Emotional labor in a gendered occupation: The work of a female funeral director
Allison Scott Pruitt (2012)
Guidelines for a palliative approach for aged care in the community setting: Processes underpinning best practice recommendations
Christine Toye (2011)
Men's experiences delivering palliative home health care in rural South Africa: an exploratory study.
Laura M Campbell (2012)
A Literature Review on Care at the End-of-Life in the Emergency Department
Roberto Forero (2012)See more