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Identification Of A Novel Saturable Endoplasmic Reticulum Localization Mechanism Mediated By The C-Terminus Of ADictyostelium Protein Disulfide Isomerase

Jean Monnat, Eva M. Neuhaus, Marius S. Pop, David M. Ferrari, Barbara Kramer, Thierry Soldati

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Localization of soluble endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins is likely achieved by the complementary action of retrieval and retention mechanisms. Whereas the machinery involving the H/KDEL and related retrieval signals in targeting escapees back to the ER is well characterized, other mechanisms including retention are still poorly understood. We have identified a protein disulfide isomerase (Dd-PDI) lacking the HDEL retrieval signal normally found at the C terminus of ER residents in Dictyostelium discoideum. Here we demonstrate that its 57 residue C-terminal domain is necessary for intracellular retention of Dd-PDI and sufficient to localize a green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimera to the ER, especially to the nuclear envelope. Dd-PDI and GFP-PDI57 are recovered in similar cation-dependent complexes. The overexpression of GFP-PDI57 leads to disruption of endogenous PDI complexes and induces the secretion of PDI, whereas overexpression of a GFP-HDEL chimera induces the secretion of endogenous calreticulin, revealing the presence of two independent and saturable mechanisms. Finally, low-level expression of Dd-PDI but not of PDI truncated of its 57 C-terminal residues complements the otherwise lethal yeast TRG1/PDI1 null mutation, demonstrating functional disulfide isomerase activity and ER localization. Altogether, these results indicate that the PDI57 peptide contains ER localization determinants recognized by a conserved machinery present in D. discoideum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.