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Cortical Tongue Area Studied By Chronically Implanted Subdural Electrodes--with Special Reference To Parietal Motor And Frontal Sensory Responses.

E. Urasaki, S. Uematsu, B. Gordon, R. Lesser
Published 1994 · Psychology, Medicine

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Motor and sensory cortical tongue representations were examined in 40 patients with intractable seizures who underwent chronic subdural electrode grid implantation. Tongue responses were observed in a wide area 4.5 cm anterior and 3 cm posterior to the central sulcus. The distribution of the responses was not influenced by whether the responses were unilateral or bilateral. In patients with fronto-parietal lesions, the tongue motor area was located significantly more superior to the Sylvian fissure and more anterior to the central sulcus than was the tongue motor area of patients without organic lesion. Both motor and sensory responses were found outside of the classic precentral or postcentral area on the lateral surface of the cortex. Motor responses ('parietal motor responses') could occur posterior to the central sulcus and, rarely, sensory responses ('frontal sensory responses') were identified anterior to the central sulcus. These paradoxical parietal motor and frontal sensory responses were seen in 17 out of 40 (42.5%) patients. Nine of these 17 patients had no organic brain lesion on MRI. Clinical factors, such as patient's age, duration of seizures and cognitive functions (IQ, word fluency score), did not influence the frequency of the paradoxical responses. However, patients with brain lesions showed a tendency to have associated paradoxical responses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, paradoxical responses are not uncommon in epilepsy patients, particularly in those with organic lesions. The physiological and clinical implications of the paradoxical responses are discussed.
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