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Effects Of Particle Exposure And Particle-elicited Inflammatory Cells On Mutation In Rat Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

K. Driscoll, L. Deyo, J. Carter, B. Howard, D. Hassenbein, T. Bertram
Published 1997 · Biology, Medicine

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To investigate mechanisms underlying development of lung adenomas and carcinomas in rats exposed to poorly soluble particles the relationships between particle exposure, inflammation and mutagenesis in rat alveolar type II cells were characterized. Rats were exposed to saline or saline suspensions of 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz, carbon black or titanium dioxide by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen months after exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were characterized as to number and type and lung histopathology performed. The alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured in 6 thioguanine (6TG) containing media to select for mutation in the hprt gene. The potential contribution of lung inflammatory cells to in vivo mutagenic responses, were evaluated by co-culturing BAL cells with the rat alveolar epithelial cell line, RLE-6TN for 24 h and the RLE-6TN cells selected for 6TG resistance. Neutrophilic inflammation was detected in all rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz and carbon black and 100 mg/kg titanium dioxide; epithelial hyperplasia was observed in rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz and 100 mg/kg carbon black. Hprt mutation frequency was increased in alveolar type II cells from rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz, 100 mg/kg carbon black and 100 mg/kg titanium dioxide. In vitro exposure of RLE-6TN cells to BAL cells from rats treated with 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz or 100 mg/kg carbon black increased hprt mutant frequency. Both macrophage and neutrophil enriched BAL cell populations were mutagenic to RLE-6TN cells, however, the mutagenic activity appeared greatest for neutrophils. Addition of catalase to BAL cell:RLE-6TN co-cultures inhibited the increase in hprt mutation frequency. These studies demonstrate exposure of rats to doses of particles producing significant neutrophilic inflammation is associated with increased mutation in rat alveolar type II cells. The ability of particle-elicited macrophages and neutrophils to exert a mutagenic effect on epithelial cells in vitro supports a role for these inflammatory cells in the in vivo mutagenic effects of particle exposure. The inhibition of BAL cell-induced mutations by catalase implies a role for cell-derived oxidants in this response.
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