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Regulation Of Root Morphogenesis In Arbuscular Mycorrhizae: What Role Do Fungal Exudates, Phosphate, Sugars And Hormones Play In Lateral Root Formation?
Published 2014 · Biology, Medicine
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BACKGROUND Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AMs) form a widespread root-fungus symbiosis that improves plant phosphate (Pi) acquisition and modifies the physiology and development of host plants. Increased branching is recognized as a general feature of AM roots, and has been interpreted as a means of increasing suitable sites for colonization. Fungal exudates, which are involved in the dialogue between AM fungi and their host during the pre-colonization phase, play a well-documented role in lateral root (LR) formation. In addition, the increased Pi content of AM plants, in relation to Pi-starved controls, as well as changes in the delivery of carbohydrates to the roots and modulation of phytohormone concentration, transport and sensitivity, are probably involved in increasing root system branching. SCOPE This review discusses the possible causes of increased branching in AM plants. The differential root responses to Pi, sugars and hormones of potential AM host species are also highlighted and discussed in comparison with those of the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana. CONCLUSIONS Fungal exudates are probably the main compounds regulating AM root morphogenesis during the first colonization steps, while a complex network of interactions governs root development in established AMs. Colonization and high Pi act synergistically to increase root branching, and sugar transport towards the arbusculated cells may contribute to LR formation. In addition, AM colonization and high Pi generally increase auxin and cytokinin and decrease ethylene and strigolactone levels. With the exception of cytokinins, which seem to regulate mainly the root:shoot biomass ratio, these hormones play a leading role in governing root morphogenesis, with strigolactones and ethylene blocking LR formation in the non-colonized, Pi-starved plants, and auxin inducing them in colonized plants, or in plants grown under high Pi conditions.
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A Stimulatory Role for Cytokinin in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis of Pea
Dane M. Goh (2019)
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi possess a CLAVATA3/embryo surrounding region-related gene that positively regulates symbiosis.
Morgane Le Marquer (2019)
Root Exudation of Primary Metabolites: Mechanisms and Their Roles in Plant Responses to Environmental Stimuli
Alberto Canarini (2019)
Growth-promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially benefit tomato and corn depending upon the supplied form of phosphorus
S. Saia (2019)
Impact of soil leachate on microbial biomass and diversity affected by plant diversity
C. Zhang (2019)
Remediation of an oil-contaminated soil by two native plants treated with biochar and mycorrhizae.
A. Abbaspour (2019)
Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?
P. Campos (2018)See more