Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.

Trail Making Test, Stroop, And Verbal Fluency: Regression-Based Norms For The Icelandic Population.

Brynja B Magnusdottir, Haraldur M. Haraldsson, Engilbert Sigurdsson
Published 2019 · Psychology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to construct regression-based norms for 3 executive-function tests: the Trail Making Test, Stroop, and Verbal Fluency. METHOD A sample of 1,034 healthy Icelandic adults (18-64 years) was used to calculate predicted scores for test measures from all 3 tests, controlled for the effects of age, gender, and education, as well as the interaction between these variables. RESULTS The 3 demographic variables showed significant effects on most test measures and were included in the final equation for estimating predicted scores. An older age and less education predicted worse cognitive performances in most cases, and women tended to outperform men. CONCLUSION These results highlight the importance of adjusting for age, gender, and educational level when constructing normative data. Controlling for age alone may be insufficient or misleading in clinical-practice settings. A simple, user-friendly program for predicting executive-function test scores is provided.
This paper references
10.1080/13854049608406689
Neuropsychological tests' norms above age 55: COWAT, BNT, MAE token, WRAT-R reading, AMNART, STROOP, TMT, and JLO
R. Ivnik (1996)
10.1016/J.ACN.2004.12.006
Category and letter verbal fluency across the adult lifespan: relationship to EEG theta power.
A. Brickman (2005)
10.1016/0028-3932(95)00107-7
Deficits in spatial working memory after unilateral temporal lobectomy in man
J. Feigenbaum (1996)
10.1007/s12264-013-1301-7
Clustering and switching during a semantic verbal fluency test contribute to differential diagnosis of cognitive impairment
Q. Zhao (2013)
10.1016/J.ACN.2007.01.022
Trail Making Test in traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and normal ageing: sample comparisons and normative data.
J. A. Periáñez (2007)
10.5812/ARCHNEUROSCI.21087
Effects of Mental Flexibility and Motor Dysfunction on Cognitive Performance in Patients With Parkinson's Disease
Paraskevi Kourtidou (2015)
10.1076/jcen.25.8.1057.16736
Effects of Age, Education and Gender on Verbal Fluency
P. S. Mathuranath (2003)
10.1037/h0054651
Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions
J. Stroop (1992)
10.1159/000022153
Education, Activity, Health, Blood Pressure and Apolipoprotein E as Predictors of Cognitive Change in Old Age: A Review
K. Anstey (2000)
Demographic characteristics and normative observations for derived-trail making test indices.
D. Drane (2002)
10.1016/J.ACN.2004.02.005
Assessment practices of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: a survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members.
L. Rabin (2005)
10.1016/s0887-6177(97)00095-4
Normative Data Stratified by Age and Education for Two Measures of Verbal Fluency
T. Tombaugh (1999)
10.1093/arclin/acs115
Trail Making Test: regression-based norms for the Portuguese population.
S. Cavaco (2013)
10.1177/107319119900600204
Norms for Letter and Category Fluency: Demographic Corrections for Age, Education, and Ethnicity
J. Gladsjo (1999)
10.1207/S15324826AN0803_5
COWAT Metanorms Across Age, Education, and Gender
A. Loonstra (2001)
10.1080/13854040490524137
DEMOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON BASELINE AND DERIVED SCORES FROM THE TRAIL MAKING TEST IN HEALTHY OLDER AUSTRALIAN ADULTS
Robert Hester (2005)
10.1037/0894-4105.18.2.284
A meta-analytic review of verbal fluency performance following focal cortical lesions.
J. Henry (2004)
10.1111/1469-8986.3810022
Optimal signal bandwidth for the recording of surface EMG activity of facial, jaw, oral, and neck muscles.
A. Boxtel (2001)
10.1037/0894-4105.16.3.335
Cognitive and neuropathologic correlates of Stroop Color-Word Test performance in Alzheimer's disease.
M. Bondi (2002)
10.1007/BF03324425
Variability of Trail Making Test, Symbol Digit Test and Line Trait Test in normal people. A normative study taking into account age-dependent decline and sociobiological variables
P. Amodio (2002)
10.1348/014466505X68032
Regression equations for predicting scores of persons over 65 on the rey auditory verbal learning test, the mini-mental state examination, the trail making test and semantic fluency measures.
R. Knight (2006)
10.1093/ARCLIN/18.1.91
Neuropsychological testing of high school athletes. Preliminary norms and test-retest indices.
W. Barr (2003)
10.1002/1097-4679(199009)46:5<623::AID-JCLP2270460513>3.0.CO;2-C
Predictors of verbal fluency (FAS) in the healthy elderly.
K. Bolla (1990)
10.1111/ene.13890
Norms for standard neuropsychological tests from the French CONSTANCES cohort
C. Ouvrard (2019)
10.1037/0894-4105.13.4.539
Deterioration of frontal lobe function in normal aging: influences of fluid intelligence versus perceptual speed.
A. Parkin (1999)
10.1177/014662168701100102
A Procedure for Standardizing Individually Administered Tests, Normed by Age or Grade Level
W. H. Angoff (1987)
10.1007/s10072-015-2428-2
An updated Italian normative dataset for the Stroop color word test (SCWT)
A. Brugnolo (2015)
10.1017/S135561771500003X
Limitations of the trail making test part-B in assessing frontal executive dysfunction.
Edgar Chan (2015)
10.1037/0033-2909.101.2.171
Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure.
J. Flynn (1987)
10.1002/1097-4679(198501)41:1<86::AID-JCLP2270410115>3.0.CO;2-W
Continuous norming: implications for the WAIS-R.
R. A. Zachary (1985)
10.1177/1745691615577701
One Century of Global IQ Gains
J. Pietschnig (2015)
10.3233/NRE-151281
Stroop Color-Word Interference Test: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.
Diego Rivera (2015)
10.1076/JCEN.21.2.229.928
Verbal and figural fluency in patients with mass lesions of the left or right frontal lobes.
O. Tucha (1999)
10.1006/brln.1997.1858
Effects of Literacy and Education on Measures of Word Fluency
G. Ratcliff (1998)
10.1037/1040-3590.17.3.336
Norming clinical questionnaires with multiple regression: the Pain Cognition List.
G. V. van Breukelen (2005)
10.1016/j.schres.2011.08.025
Impaired cognitive inhibition in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of the Stroop interference effect
R. Westerhausen (2011)
10.1080/0361073X.2016.1191838
Population Normative Data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in Younger- and Middle-Aged Adults: Cross-Sectional Analyses from the Framingham Heart Study
Lisa D Hankee (2016)
10.1017/S1355617709090626
Construct validity of the Trail Making Test: role of task-switching, working memory, inhibition/interference control, and visuomotor abilities.
I. Sánchez-Cubillo (2009)
10.1080/13854040590945210
Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: Age- and IQ-Adjusted Norms for the Trail-Making Test, the Stroop Test, and MAE Controlled Oral Word Association Test
B. Steinberg (2005)
10.1002/HUP.218
Habitual caffeine consumption and its relation to memory, attention, planning capacity and psychomotor performance across multiple age groups
P. Hameleers (2000)
10.1177/1073191110370116
The Dutch Memory Compensation Questionnaire
W. van der Elst (2011)
10.1017/S1355617704102014
The verbal fluency task in the Greek population: normative data, and clustering and switching strategies.
M. Kosmidis (2004)
10.2466/pms.1958.8.3.271
Validity of the Trail Making Test as an Indicator of Organic Brain Damage
R. Reitan (1958)
10.1016/S0920-9964(02)00282-7
Letter and category fluency in schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis
C. Bokat (2003)
10.1038/nature12818
CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls
H. Stefánsson (2014)
10.1080/13825585.2015.1027650
Derived Trail Making Test indices: demographics and cognitive background variables across the adult life span
Foteini Christidi (2015)
10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.10.019
Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease dementia based upon biomarkers and neuropsychological test performance
M. Ewers (2012)
10.1080/13803395.2011.625351
The Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Sorting Test as an evaluative tool for executive functions after severe traumatic brain injury: A comparative study
Eyal Heled (2012)
10.1076/JCEN.20.6.906.1104
Validity of regression-based norms: an empirical test of the comprehensive norms with older adults.
P. Fastenau (1998)
10.1080/1380339049091290
Interpreting the Trail Making Test Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparison of Traditional Time Scores and Derived Indices
R. Lange (2005)
10.1080/13803395.2010.533158
A meta-analysis of response inhibition and Stroop interference control deficits in adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Aneta Dimoska-Di Marco (2011)
10.1016/J.ACN.2007.01.003
Do Russian and American normal adults perform similarly on neuropsychological tests? Preliminary findings on the relationship between culture and test performance.
Anna V. Agranovich (2007)
10.1177/1073191105283427
The Stroop Color-Word Test
W. van der Elst (2006)
10.1037/0894-4105.12.3.426
Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence.
R. Heinrichs (1998)
10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00557
The Stroop Color and Word Test
Federica Scarpina (2017)
10.1016/S0924-9338(97)83296-8
The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI
Y. Lecrubier (1997)
10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00039-8
Trail Making Test A and B: normative data stratified by age and education.
T. Tombaugh (2004)
Computerized assessment in neuropsychiatry using CANTAB: discussion paper.
B. Sahakian (1992)
10.1017/S1355617798466013
The effects of age, education, and ethnicity on verbal fluency.
D. Kempler (1998)



Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar