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Measurement Of 45 Cytokine, Chemokine And Growth Factors In Established Cell Culture Supernatants And Autologous Serum From Advanced Melanoma Patients

Yoel Genaro Montoyo-Pujol, Xu Wang, Sandra Bermúdez-Sánchez, Aurelio Martin, Francisco Almazan, Miguel Ángel López-Nevot

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Abstract Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of human cancer and its incidence has significantly increased worldwide over the last decades. This neoplasia has been characterized by the release of a wide variety of soluble factors, which could stimulate tumor cell proliferation and survival in an autocrine and paracrine manner. Consequently, we sought to evaluate the pattern of soluble factors produced by pre-metastatic and metastatic melanoma established cultures, and to determine whether these factors can be detected in the autologous serum of malignant melanoma patients. Our results showed that both melanoma cultures had a common profile of 27 soluble factors mainly characterized by the high expression of VEGF-A, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8, and SDF-1. In addition, when we compared supernatants, we observed significant differences in VEGF-A, BDNF, FGF-2, and NGF-β concentrations. As we found in melanoma cultures, serum samples also had their specific production pattern composed by 21 soluble factors. Surprisingly, PDGF-BB and EGF were only found in serum, whereas IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL31, FGF2, and GRO-α were only expressed in the supernatant. Significant differences in PDGF-BB, MIP-1β, HGF, PIGF-1, BDNF, EGF, Eotaxin, and IP-10 were also found after comparing autologous serum with healthy controls. According to this, no correlation was found between culture supernatants and autologous serum samples, which suggests that some factors may act locally, and others systemically. Nonetheless, after validation of our results in an independent cohort of patients, we concluded that PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, and IP-10 serum levels could be used to monitor different melanoma stages.