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Ligand Assays: From Electrophoresis To Miniaturized Microarrays.

R. Ekins
Published 1998 · Chemistry, Medicine

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The main developments in the "ligand assay" field in which I have been involved are traced. These include the original development of "first generation" competitive assays relying on radiolabeled analyte markers; the development of the first "second generation", noncompetitive (ultrasensitive) methods, which rely on the use of labeled (monoclonal) antibodies and high specific activity nonisotopic labels (leading to the transformation of the immunodiagnostic field in the 1980s); and the development of the first "third generation" miniaturized, chip-based, microarray methods, which permit the simultaneous ultrasensitive measurement of many analytes in the same small sample. The latter--applicable both to immunoassay and to DNA/RNA analysis--are likely to revolutionize the diagnostic and pharmaceutical fields in the next decade.
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