Antimicrobial-induced Horizontal Transfer Of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes In Bacteria: A Mini-review
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among pathogenic bacteria constitute an accelerating crisis for public health. The selective pressures caused by increased use and misuse of antimicrobials in medicine and livestock production have accelerated the overall selection of resistant bacteria. In addition, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role in the spread of resistance genes, for example mobilizing reservoirs of AMR from commensal bacteria into pathogenic ones. Antimicrobials, besides antibacterial function, also result in undesirable effects in the microbial populations, including the stimulation of HGT. The main aim of this narrative review was to present an overview of the current knowledge of the impact of antimicrobials on HGT in bacteria, including the effects of transformation, transduction and conjugation, as well as other less well-studied mechanisms of HGT. It is widely accepted that conjugation plays a major role in the spread of AMR in bacteria, and the focus of this review is therefore mainly on the evidence provided that antimicrobial treatment affects this process. Other mechanisms of HGT have so far been deemed less important in this respect; however, recent discoveries suggest their role may be larger than previously thought, and the review provides an update on the rather limited knowledge currently available regarding the impact of antimicrobial treatment on these processes as well. A conclusion from the review is that there is an urgent need to investigate the mechanisms of antimicrobial-induced HGT, since this will be critical for developing new strategies to combat the spread of AMR.