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Calretinin And Other Mesothelioma Markers In Synovial Sarcoma: Analysis Of Antigenic Similarities And Differences With Malignant Mesothelioma

M. Miettinen, J. Limon, A. Niezabitowski, J. Lasota
Published 2001 · Medicine, Biology

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Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a mesenchymal neoplasm that typically shows epithelial differentiation. SS commonly metastasizes to lung and pleura, and has also been reported as the primary in these locations. The histologic distinction of SS from mesothelioma may be difficult because of the combination of epithelioid and spindle cells, potentially shared locations, and antigenic expression. In this study the authors examined 103 well-documented SSs including 41 biphasic, 44 monophasic, and 18 poorly differentiated SSs in comparison with 23 epithelioid and seven sarcomatous mesotheliomas. Most biphasic SSs (29 of 41, 71%) had fields or foci of calretinin-positive tumor cells. The spindle cell components were more often positive (55%), whereas 14% of tumors had positive epithelial cells. The monophasic and poorly differentiated SSs commonly had foci of calretinin-positive cells (in 52% and 56% of cases respectively). In comparison, all 23 epithelioid mesotheliomas (EM) were extensively calretinin positive and seven sarcomatoid mesotheliomas were variably calretinin positive. HBME-1 positivity was similarly detected in biphasic SS and EM (100% and 87% respectively). Among the other sarcomas, two of 15 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors were focally calretinin positive, whereas 16 epithelioid sarcomas, 20 leiomyosarcomas, 20 gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and 20 angiosarcomas were negative. Biphasic SSs differed from mesotheliomas by their more common BerEp4 positivity (90%) whereas EMs showed focal reactivity in 13% cases. Marked CD15 reactivity was rare in both. Wilms tumor protein-1 (WT1) was not detected in SS, but was present in 12 of 17 EMs. CD141 was rare in SS, limited to spindle cell components, whereas EMs typically showed prominent membrane staining in epithelial cells. Simple epithelial keratins were present in all epithelial cells of biphasic SS and mesothelioma (keratin 7[K7], K19), but were only focal in monophasic and poorly differentiated SS. Biphasic SSs were extensively K14 positive (89% of cases), whereas epithelial and sarcomatoid mesotheliomas typically showed only scattered positive cells. The potentially shared calretinin patterns in SS and mesothelioma require the use of other markers. The discriminating features include extensive BerEp4 positivity, rarity of CD141, and lack of WT1 in SS. Global expression of K7 and K19 in mesotheliomas versus focal expression in monophasic and poorly differentiated SSs, and differential patterns of K14 expression may also be helpful.
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