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Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy (HypoFXSRT) For Stage I Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Updated Results Of 257 Patients In A Japanese Multi-institutional Study

H. Onishi, H. Shirato, Y. Nagata, M. Hiraoka, Masaharu Fujino, K. Gomi, Y. Niibe, K. Karasawa, K. Hayakawa, Y. Takai, T. Kimura, A. Takeda, A. Ouchi, M. Hareyama, M. Kokubo, R. Hara, J. Itami, K. Yamada, T. Araki
Published 2007 · Medicine

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Introduction: Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HypoFXSRT) has recently been used for the treatment of small lung tumors. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment outcome of HypoFXSRT for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated in a Japanese multi-institutional study. Methods: This is a retrospective study to review 257 patients with stage I NSCLC (median age, 74 years: 164 T1N0M0, 93 T2N0M0) were treated with HypoFXSRT alone at 14 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. A total dose of 18 to 75 Gy at the isocenter was administered in one to 22 fractions. The median calculated biological effective dose (BED) was 111 Gy (range, 57–180 Gy) based on α/β = 10. Results: During follow-up (median, 38 months), pulmonary complications of above grade 2 arose in 14 patients (5.4%). Local progression occurred in 36 patients (14.0%), and the local recurrence rate was 8.4% for a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with 42.9% for less than 100 Gy (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate of medically operable patients was 70.8% among those treated with a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with 30.2% among those treated with less than 100 Gy (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Although this is a retrospective study, HypoFXSRT with a BED of less than 180 Gy was almost safe for stage I NSCLC, and the local control and overall survival rates in 5 years with a BED of 100 Gy or more were superior to the reported results for conventional radiotherapy. For all treatment methods and schedules, the local control and survival rates were better with a BED of 100 Gy or more compared with less than 100 Gy. HypoFXSRT is feasible for curative treatment of patients with stage I NSCLC.
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