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Detecting Direct Oral Anticoagulants In Trauma Patients Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A Novel Approach To Medication Reconciliation

S. Jayaraman, J. DeAntonio, S. Leichtle, J. Han, Loren K Liebrecht, D. Contaifer, C. Young, C. Chou, Julia Staschen, D. Doan, N. Kumar, L. Wolfe, Tammy Nguyen, Gregory Chenault, R. Anand, J. Bennett, P. Ferrada, S. Goldberg, L. Procter, E. Rodas, A. P. Rossi, James F. Whelan, V. Feeser, Michael J. Vitto, Beth Broering, S. Hobgood, M. Mangino, M. Aboutanos, L. M. Bachmann, D. Wijesinghe
Published 2019 · Biology

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Background Accurate medication reconciliation in trauma patients is essential but difficult. Currently there is no established clinical method of detecting direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in trauma patients. We hypothesized that a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) based assay can be used to accurately detect DOACs in trauma patients upon hospital arrival. Methods Plasma samples were collected from 356 patients who provided informed consent including-10 healthy controls, 19 known positive or negative controls and 327 trauma patients over 65 years of age who were evaluated at our large, urban Level 1 Trauma Center. The assay methodology was developed in healthy and known controls to detect apixaban, rivaroxaban and dabigatran using LCMS and then applied to 327 samples from trauma patients. Standard medication reconciliation processes in the electronic medical record documenting DOAC usage was compared with LCMS results to determine overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of the assay. Results Of 356 patients, 39 were on DOACs (10.96%): 21 were on Apixaban, 14 on rivaroxaban and 4 on dabigatran. The overall accuracy of the assay for detecting any DOAC was 98.60%, with a sensitivity of 94.87% and specificity of 99.06%, (PPV 92.50% and NPV 99.37%). The assay detected apixaban with a sensitivity of 90.48% and specificity of 99.11% (PPV 86.36% and NPV 99.40%). There were three false positive results and two false negative LCMS results for apixaban. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban were detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions This LCMS-based assay was highly accurate in detecting DOACs in trauma patients. Further studies need to confirm the clinical efficacy of this LCMS assay and its value for medication reconciliation in trauma patients. Study type: diagnostic test Basic Science paper: therefore does not require a level of evidence.
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