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IL-17A Both Initiates (via IFNγ Suppression) And Limits The Pulmonary Type-2 Immune Response To Nematode Infection

Jesuthas Ajendra, Alistair L. Chenery, James E. Parkinson, Brian H. K. Chan, Stella Pearson, Stefano A. P. Colombo, Louis Boon, Richard K. Grencis, Tara E. Sutherland, Judith E. Allen

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ABSTRACTNippostrongylus brasiliensis is a well-defined model of type-2 immunity but the early lung-migrating phase is dominated by innate IL-17A production and neutrophilia. Using N. brasiliensis infection we confirm previous observations that Il17a-KO mice exhibit an impaired type-2 immune response. Neutrophil depletion and reconstitution studies demonstrated that neutrophils contribute to the subsequent eosinophilia but are not responsible for the ability of IL-17A to promote type-2 cytokine responses. Transcriptional profiling of the lung on day 2 of N. brasiliensis infection revealed an increased Ifnγ signature in the Il17a-KO mice confirmed by enhanced IFNγ protein production. Depletion of early IFNγ rescued type-2 immune responses in the Il17a-KO mice demonstrating that IL-17A-mediated suppression of IFNγ promotes type-2 immunity. Notably, when IL-17A was blocked later in infection, the type-2 response increased. IL-17A regulation of type-2 immunity was lung-specific and infection with Trichuris muris, revealed that IL-17A promotes a type-2 immune response in the lung even when a parasite lifecycle is restricted to the intestine. Together our data reveal IL-17A as a major regulator of pulmonary type-2 immunity which supports the development of a protective type-2 immune response but subsequently limits the magnitude of that response.