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Randomized Placebo‐controlled Trial Of Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G‐CSF) As Supportive Care After Induction Chemotherapy In Adult Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukaemia: A Study Of The United Kingdom Medical Research Council Adult Leukaemia Working Party

K. Wheatley, A. Goldstone, T. Littlewood, Anne Hunter, A. Burnett
Published 2009 · Medicine

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The role of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G‐CSF) as supportive therapy following intensive induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in adults was investigated in a randomized trial. G‐CSF (Lenograstim, 263 μg/d) or placebo was administered from day 8 after the end of chemotherapy until neutrophil recovery to 0·5 × 109/l (or for up to 10 d). Eight hundred and three patients were entered. Neutrophil recovery was quicker with G‐CSF (P < 0·0001), but this did not lead to differences in the number, severity or duration of infections. There were no substantial supportive care savings, although G‐CSF patients spent 2 d less in hospital (P = 0·01). Complete remission (CR) rates were similar between arms (73% G‐CSF, 75% placebo, P = 0·5), as were reasons for failure (induction death: P = 0·7; resistant disease: P = 0·5) and, for remitters, 5‐year disease‐free survival (34% vs. 38%, P = 0·3). Overall survival at 5 years was 29% with G‐CSF vs. 36% with placebo (P = 0·10). Both CR rate (P = 0·006) and overall survival (P = 0·006) were worse with G‐CSF in patients aged <40 years, but this may be a chance effect. There is some evidence from this trial of an adverse effect of G‐CSF but these data need to be viewed in the context of the evidence from the other trials.
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