Recombinant Human Cachectin/tumor Necrosis Factor But Not Interleukin-1 Alpha Downregulates Lipoprotein Lipase Gene Expression At The Transcriptional Level In Mouse 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is synthesized primarily in muscle and adipose tissue and by hydrolyzing triglycerides in chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein allows uptake of the resultant free fatty acids by these tissues. This report describes the cloning of the mouse LPL gene from which probes were derived to study the regulation of LPL synthesis in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell culture system. Preconfluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes had very small amounts of LPL mRNA (less than 1 pg/micrograms of RNA). At confluency, LPL mRNA levels increased to 5 to 15 pg/micrograms of RNA. After insulin and dexamethasone were added, LPL activity and mRNA levels rose in parallel. Peak mRNA levels were reached within 4 to 10 days, achieving LPL mRNA concentrations of 150 to 500 pg/micrograms of RNA. This represents a 15- to 50-fold increase over confluent cells. Two cytokines known to diminish adipose tissue LPL activity were studied to see how their effects were regulated. Recombinant human cachectin/tumor necrosis factor diminished both LPL activity and LPL mRNA levels. The effect on LPL activity compared with mRNA levels was quicker, at a lower dose, and more complete (95 versus 75% maximum effect). The effect of recombinant human cachectin tumor necrosis factor on LPL mRNA levels was shown by nuclear run-on experiments to be exerted transcriptionally. It was also independent of new protein synthesis. Recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha diminished only LPL activity but not mRNA levels. This study suggests that during times of stress, cytokines secreted by activated macrophages can alter energy balance by affecting transcriptional and posttranscriptional processes in adipocytes.