P50 Suppresses Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Effector Function To Regulate Tumor Immune Escape And Response To Immunotherapy
NF-κB is a key link between inflammation and cancer. Previous studies of NF-κB have largely focused on tumor cells, and the intrinsic function of NF-κB in T cells in tumor development and response to immunotherapy is largely unknown. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that NF-κB1 (p50) activation in T cells underlies human colon cancer immune escape and human cancer non-response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.
We screened NF-κB activation in human colon carcinoma and used mouse models to determine p50 function in tumor cells and immune cells. RNA-Seq was used to identify p50 target genes. p50 binding to target gene promoters were determined by electrophoresis mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A p50 activation score was generated from gene expression profiling and used to link p50 activation to T-cell activation and function pre-nivolumab and post-nivolumab immunotherapy in human patients with cancer.
p50 is the dominant form of NF-κB that is highly activated in immune cells in the human colorectal carcinoma microenvironment and neighboring non-neoplastic colon epithelial cells. Tumor cell intrinsic p50 signaling and T-cell intrinsic p50 signaling exert opposing functions in tumor growth control in vivo. Deleting
Inflammation activates p50 that binds to the