Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Reactive Oxygen Species: Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, And Signal Transduction.

K. Apel, H. Hirt
Published 2004 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Several reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously produced in plants as byproducts of aerobic metabolism. Depending on the nature of the ROS species, some are highly toxic and rapidly detoxified by various cellular enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms. Whereas plants are surfeited with mechanisms to combat increased ROS levels during abiotic stress conditions, in other circumstances plants appear to purposefully generate ROS as signaling molecules to control various processes including pathogen defense, programmed cell death, and stomatal behavior. This review describes the mechanisms of ROS generation and removal in plants during development and under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. New insights into the complexity and roles that ROS play in plants have come from genetic analyses of ROS detoxifying and signaling mutants. Considering recent ROS-induced genome-wide expression analyses, the possible functions and mechanisms for ROS sensing and signaling in plants are compared with those in animals and yeast.
This paper references
10.1038/nature00861
Overexpression of β-carotene hydroxylase enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis
P. Davison (2002)
10.1201/9781351070454-1
Oxygen metabolism and the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport.
C. Foyer (1994)
10.1016/0092-8674(94)90544-4
H2O2 from the oxidative burst orchestrates the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response
Alex Levine (1994)
10.1016/S1369-5266(01)00226-6
Signal transduction in response to excess light: getting out of the chloroplast.
P. Mullineaux (2002)
Plant Biol
10.1073/PNAS.93.18.9970
Environmental stress sensitivity of an ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.
P. L. Conklin (1996)
10.1104/PP.116.4.1209
Nonphotochemical reduction of the plastoquinone pool in sunflower leaves originates from chlororespiration
Feild (1998)
10.1073/pnas.231178298
Signal interactions between nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant hypersensitive disease resistance response
M. Delledonne (2001)
10.1073/PNAS.96.14.8271
The alternative oxidase lowers mitochondrial reactive oxygen production in plant cells.
D. Maxwell (1999)
10.1016/S0981-9428(01)01300-6
Generation of hydrogen peroxide is not required for harpin-induced apoptotic cell death in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture
Y. Ichinose (2001)
10.1104/pp.107.4.1049
Dissection of Oxidative Stress Tolerance Using Transgenic Plants
R. D. Allen (1995)
Glutathione biosynthesis in plants
T. Vernoux (2002)
Regulation of gene expression by reactive oxygen.Annu
TP Dalton (1999)
10.1104/pp.009688
Transcription Profiling of the Early Gravitropic Response in Arabidopsis Using High-Density Oligonucleotide Probe Microarrays1,212
N. Moseyko (2002)
10.1104/PP.125.4.1591
Release of reactive oxygen intermediates (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals) and peroxidase in germinating radish seeds controlled by light, gibberellin, and abscisic acid.
P. Schopfer (2001)
Plant Physiol. Biochem
Catalase is a sink for H 2 O 2 and is indispensable for stress defense in C3 plants
H Willekens (1997)
A photoprotective role for O2 as an alternative electronic sink in photosynthesis? Curr
RD Ort (2002)
10.1104/PP.124.1.21
Role of reactive oxygen intermediates and cognate redox signaling in disease resistance.
John J. Grant (2000)
10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81405-1
Reactive Oxygen Intermediates Mediate a Systemic Signal Network in the Establishment of Plant Immunity
M. E. Alvarez (1998)
10.1038/35081161
Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection
J. Dangl (2001)
10.1007/s00425-001-0675-3
The sensitivity of ABI2 to hydrogen peroxide links the abscisic acid-response regulator to redox signalling
M. Meinhard (2001)
10.1105/tpc.11.3.431
The Involvement of Cysteine Proteases and Protease Inhibitor Genes in the Regulation of Programmed Cell Death in Plants
M. Solomon (1999)
10.1111/J.1399-3054.1996.TB00469.X
The oxidative burst in plant defense: Function and signal transduction
P. Low (1996)
10.1038/nature01681
Oxidation state of the active-site cysteine in protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B
R. V. Montfort (2003)
10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00004-1
Inhibition of O2-reducing activity of horseradish peroxidase by diphenyleneiodonium.
G. Frahry (1998)
10.1126/science.273.5283.1853
Initiation of Runaway Cell Death in an Arabidopsis Mutant by Extracellular Superoxide
T. Jabs (1996)
10.1091/MBC.E02-08-0499
Global transcriptional responses of fission yeast to environmental stress.
D. Chen (2003)
NADPH oxidase: an update.Blood93:1464–76
BM Babior (1999)
10.1126/SCIENCE.279.5357.1718
Activation of the OxyR transcription factor by reversible disulfide bond formation.
M. Zheng (1998)
10.1128/MMBR.62.4.1264-1300.1998
MAP Kinase Pathways in the YeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae
M. Gustin (1998)
10.1073/PNAS.96.11.6553
Hydrogen peroxide is generated systemically in plant leaves by wounding and systemin via the octadecanoid pathway.
M. Orozco-Cárdenas (1999)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.PCP.A029572
Overproduction of Arabidopsis thaliana FeSOD confers oxidative stress tolerance to transgenic maize.
F. Van Breusegem (1999)
10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80341-8
Animal cell-death suppressors Bcl-xL and Ced-9 inhibit cell death in tobacco plants
I. Mitsuhara (1999)
10.1093/JEXBOT/53.372.1367
The apoplastic oxidative burst in response to biotic stress in plants: a three-component system.
G. Bolwell (2002)
Mechanisms of oxygen activation in different compartments of plant cells
E. Elstner (1991)
10.1104/PP.126.4.1438
Hydrogen peroxide is involved in abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba.
X. Zhang (2001)
10.1016/0003-9861(51)90012-4
Studies on reactions of illuminated chloroplasts. II. Stimulation and inhibition of the reaction with molecular oxygen.
A. Mehler (1951)
GDL ROS 397 acts as a second messenger for the induction of defense genes in tomato plants in response to wounding , systemin , and methyl jasmonate
ML Orozco-Cardenas (1999)
Oxford: Clarendon 52 Responses to plant pathogens
B Halliwell (1989)
10.1104/pp.110.3.759
The Active Oxygen Response of Cell Suspensions to Incompatible Bacteria Is Not Sufficient to Cause Hypersensitive Cell Death
J. A. Glazener (1996)
Responses to abiotic stresses.
M. Dracup (1998)
10.1104/pp.005504
Two-Component Signal Transduction Pathways in Arabidopsis1
I. Hwang (2002)
10.1515/BC.2002.047
Oxidant-Induced Signaling: Effects of Peroxynitrite and Singlet Oxygen
L. Klotz (2002)
10.1016/S1011-1344(01)00207-X
Photosensitized oxidation of membrane lipids: reaction pathways, cytotoxic effects, and cytoprotective mechanisms.
A. Girotti (2001)
Evidence for a respira tory chain in the chloroplast
P. Bennoun (1982)
10.1042/BJ3590575
Structure and differential expression of the four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferritin gene family.
J. Petit (2001)
A photoprotective role for O2 as an alternative electronic sink in photosynthesis?
Rd Ort (2002)
10.1073/PNAS.95.10.5818
Defense activation and enhanced pathogen tolerance induced by H2O2 in transgenic tobacco.
S. Chamnongpol (1998)
10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01165-0
How to Flip the (Redox) Switch
G. Georgiou (2002)
Detection of singlet oxygen and superoxide with fluorescent sensors in leaves under stress by photo inhibition or UV radiation.Plant Cell Physiol
HidegÉ (2002)
Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the maizeCat2gene have altered catalase levels that affect plant-pathogen interactions and resistance to oxidative stress
AN Polidoros (2001)
The twocomponent regulators GacS and GacA influence accumulation of the stationaryphase sigma factor sigmaS and the stress response inPseudomonas fluorescens Pf5
CA Whistler (1998)
10.1073/pnas.152337999
Comprehensive analysis of gene expression in Nicotiana tabacum leaves acclimated to oxidative stress
E. Vranová (2002)
10.1073/PNAS.92.10.4158
Function of the oxidative burst in hypersensitive disease resistance.
R. Tenhaken (1995)
10.1016/0014-5793(96)00177-9
Generation of active oxygen in elicited cells of Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by a NADPH oxidase‐like enzyme
R. Desikan (1996)
Catalase is a sink for H 2O2 and is indispensable for stress defense in C3 plants.EMBO J.16:4806–16
H Willekens (1997)
Rapid induction of distinct stress responses following the release of singlet oxygen in Arabidopsis thaliana
Rg Op Den Camp (2003)
10.1104/pp.111.4.1031
Changes in Stomatal Behavior and Guard Cell Cytosolic Free Calcium in Response to Oxidative Stress
M. McAinsh (1996)
The sensitivity of ABI2 to hydrogen peroxide links the abscisic acid-response regulator to redox signaling Animal cell-death suppressors Bcl-x L and Ced-9 inhibit cell death in tobacco plants
M Meinhard (1999)
10.1146/ANNUREV.ARPLANT.50.1.601
THE WATER-WATER CYCLE IN CHLOROPLASTS: Scavenging of Active Oxygens and Dissipation of Excess Photons.
K. Asada (1999)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.1998.00136.X
Six Arabidopsis thaliana homologues of the human respiratory burst oxidase (gp91phox).
M. A. Torres (1998)
A recessiveArabidopsismutant that grows enhanced active oxygen detoxification
K Tsugane (1999)
The Arabidopsisaccelerated cell death gene ACD2 encodes red chlorophyll catabolite reductase and suppresses the spread of disease
JM Mach (2001)
19:43 AR AR213-PP55-15.tex AR213-PP55-15.sgm LaTeX2e(2002/01/18) P1: GDL ROS
H Wohlgemuth (2004)
10.1073/PNAS.96.24.14165
Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced capability to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates are hyperresponsive to pathogen infection.
R. Mittler (1999)
10.1021/BI972890+
Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in vivo results in singlet oxygen production detection via nitroxide-induced fluorescence quenching in broad bean leaves.
É. Hideg (1998)
10.1104/PP.99.3.1208
Effect of Specific Elicitors of Cladosporium fulvum on Tomato Suspension Cells : Evidence for the Involvement of Active Oxygen Species.
R. Vera-Estrella (1992)
10.1016/0092-8674(92)90530-P
Elicitor- and wound-induced oxidative cross-linking of a proline-rich plant cell wall protein: A novel, rapid defense response
D. Bradley (1992)
10.1038/NBT1097-988
Overexpression of glutathione S-transferase/glutathioneperoxidase enhances the growth of transgenic tobacco seedlings during stress
V. P. Roxas (1997)
10.1016/0168-9452(90)90114-4
Correlation between CuZn superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, and environmental and xenobiotic stress tolerance in maize inbreds
C. Malan (1990)
Harpin and hydrogen peroxide both initiate programmed cell death but have differential effects on gene expression inArabidopsissuspension cultures.Biochem
R Desikan (1998)
Non-enzymatic triggering of the ceramide signaling cascade by solar UVA radiation.EMBO J.19:5793–800
S Grether-Beck (2000)
10.1091/MBC.01-06-0288
Distinct regulatory proteins control the graded transcriptional response to increasing H(2)O(2) levels in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
J. Quinn (2002)
10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00285-6
Complexity, cross talk and integration of plant MAP kinase signalling.
C. Jonak (2002)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.2002.01427.X
Double antisense plants lacking ascorbate peroxidase and catalase are less sensitive to oxidative stress than single antisense plants lacking ascorbate peroxidase or catalase.
L. Rizhsky (2002)
10.1104/PP.123.4.1289
Early H(2)O(2) accumulation in mesophyll cells leads to induction of glutathione during the hyper-sensitive response in the barley-powdery mildew interaction.
H. Vanacker (2000)
10.1007/s004250000376
NADH-stimulated, cyanide-resistant superoxide production in maize coleoptiles analyzed with a tetrazolium-based assay
G. Frahry (2001)
Redox con trol of protein tyrosine phosphatases and mitogen-activated protein kinases in plants.Plant Physiol.132:1149–52
R Gupta (2003)
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase as a molecular target for diphenylether herbicides.Biochem
M Matringe (1989)
10.1146/annurev.phyto.33.1.299
Active oxygen in plant pathogenesis.
C. J. Baker (1995)
10.1073/PNAS.97.6.2940
Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in plants.
Y. Kovtun (2000)
10.1074/JBC.274.7.4231
Expression of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase or Coproporphyrinogen Oxidase Antisense RNA in Tobacco Induces Pathogen Defense Responses Conferring Increased Resistance to Tobacco Mosaic Virus*
H. Mock (1999)
10.1146/ANNUREV.BI.58.070189.000455
Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity.
E. Cadenas (1989)
10.1042/BJ2600231
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase as a molecular target for diphenyl ether herbicides.
M. Matringe (1989)
10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00432-9
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sln1p-Ssk1p two-component system mediates response to oxidative stress and in an oxidant-specific fashion.
K. K. Singh (2000)
10.1073/PNAS.97.16.8849
Nitric oxide and salicylic acid signaling in plant defense.
D. Klessig (2000)
A photoprotec - tive role for O 2 as an alternative electronic sink in photosynthesis ?
Pei Z-M (2000)
10.1104/PP.121.1.147
Oligogalacturonic acid and chitosan reduce stomatal aperture by inducing the evolution of reactive oxygen species from guard cells of tomato and Commelina communis.
S. Lee (1999)
10.1073/PNAS.96.19.10922
The small GTP-binding protein rac is a regulator of cell death in plants.
T. Kawasaki (1999)
10.1046/J.1432-1327.1999.00199.X
Hydroxyl-radical production in physiological reactions. A novel function of peroxidase.
S. X. Chen (1999)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.2001.01187.X
Hydroxyl radical-induced cell-wall loosening in vitro and in vivo: implications for the control of elongation growth.
P. Schopfer (2001)
10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00157-X
Hydrogen peroxide-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.
R. Desikan (2000)
10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00259-5
A photoprotective role for O(2) as an alternative electron sink in photosynthesis?
D. Ort (2002)
10.1073/PNAS.98.2.771
The Arabidopsis-accelerated cell death gene ACD2 encodes red chlorophyll catabolite reductase and suppresses the spread of disease symptoms.
J. M. Mach (2001)
10.1016/0048-4059(85)90044-X
NADPH-dependent O2− generation in membrane fractions isolated from wounded potato tubers inoculated with Phytophthora infestans
N. Doke (1985)
Superoxide production by plant homologues of the gp91phox NADPH oxidase. Modulation of activity by calcium and by tobacco mosaic virus infection.Plant Physiol
M Sagi (2001)
Early H2O2 accumulation in mesophyll cells leads to induction of glutathione during the hypersensitive response in the barley-powdery mildew interaction.Plant Physiol.123:1289–300
H Vanacker (2000)
Acad. Sci
10.1105/tpc.014662
Rapid Induction of Distinct Stress Responses after the Release of Singlet Oxygen in Arabidopsis Online version contains Web-only data. Article, publication date, and citation information can be found at www.plantcell.org/cgi/doi/10.1105/tpc.014662.
R. G. op den Camp (2003)
10.1104/PP.116.4.1379
Comparative biochemistry of the oxidative burst produced by rose and french bean cells reveals two distinct mechanisms
Bolwell (1998)
10.1042/BJ3300115
Harpin and hydrogen peroxide both initiate programmed cell death but have differential effects on defence gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cultures.
R. Desikan (1998)
10.1038/35021067
Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells
Zhen-Ming Pei (2000)
10.1046/J.1469-8137.2000.00667.X
Oxygen processing in photo-synthesis: regulation and signalling
C. Foyer (2000)
10.1182/BLOOD.V93.5.1464.405A32_1464_1476
NADPH Oxidase: An Update
B. Babior (1999)
10.1104/pp.009886
The as-1 Promoter Element Is an Oxidative Stress-Responsive Element and Salicylic Acid Activates It via Oxidative Species1
V. Garretón (2002)
10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00429-X
Inducers of Plant Systemic Acquired Resistance Regulate NPR1 Function through Redox Changes
Zhonglin Mou (2003)
10.1104/PP.126.3.1055
Role of auxin-induced reactive oxygen species in root gravitropism.
J. H. Joo (2001)
10.1080/07352688809382256
Photodynamic herbicides. Recent developments and molecular basis of selectivity
C. Rebeiz (1988)
Chlororespiration. Philos . Trans. R. Soc. London B
Pj Nixon (2000)
10.1128/JB.180.24.6635-6641.1998
The two-component regulators GacS and GacA influence accumulation of the stationary-phase sigma factor sigmaS and the stress response in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.
C. Whistler (1998)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PHARMTOX.39.1.67
Regulation of gene expression by reactive oxygen.
T. Dalton (1999)
10.1073/pnas.252641899
NDP kinase 2 interacts with two oxidative stress-activated MAPKs to regulate cellular redox state and enhances multiple stress tolerance in transgenic plants
Haejeong Moon (2002)
10.1105/tpc.11.7.1277
Elevated Glutathione Biosynthetic Capacity in the Chloroplasts of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Paradoxically Causes Increased Oxidative Stress
G. Creissen (1999)
10.1093/PCP/PCF145
Detection of singlet oxygen and superoxide with fluorescent sensors in leaves under stress by photoinhibition or UV radiation.
É. Hideg (2002)
10.1007/s40278-019-57243-4
Hydrogen peroxide
M. Schmeißer (1999)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SLN 1 P - SSK 1 P two component system mediates response to oxidative stress and in an oxidant - specific fash
M Solomon (1999)
10.1091/MBC.11.12.4241
Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes.
A. Gasch (2000)
10.1016/0005-2728(93)90201-P
Direct detection of singlet oxygen from isolated Photosystem II reaction centres
A. N. Macpherson (1993)
10.1093/emboj/19.19.5157
H2O2 sensing through oxidation of the Yap1 transcription factor
A. Delaunay (2000)
10.1093/emboj/16.16.4806
Catalase is a sink for H2O2 and is indispensable for stress defence in C3 plants
H. Willekens (1997)
10.1111/J.1399-3054.1997.TB04778.X
Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: Relationships in green cells
R. Alscher (1997)
10.1023/A:1010601424452
The glutathione peroxidase homologous gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is transcriptionally up-regulated by singlet oxygen
U. Leisinger (2004)
10.1104/PP.126.3.1281
Superoxide production by plant homologues of the gp91(phox) NADPH oxidase. Modulation of activity by calcium and by tobacco mosaic virus infection.
M. Sagi (2001)
10.1023/A:1013027920444
Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the maize Cat2 gene have altered catalase levels that affect plant-pathogen interactions and resistance to oxidative stress
A. Polidoros (2004)
10.1104/PP.127.1.159
Regulation of the Arabidopsis transcriptome by oxidative stress.
R. Desikan (2001)
Rapid induction of distinct stress responses following the release of singlet oxygen in Arabidopsis thaliana
RG op den Camp (2003)
10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01048-6
A Thiol Peroxidase Is an H2O2 Receptor and Redox-Transducer in Gene Activation
A. Delaunay (2002)
10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03106-4
Hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C from Arabidopsis
M. Meinhard (2001)
10.1042/0264-6021:3590575
Structure and differential expression of the four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferritin gene family.
J. Petit (2001)
10.1016/0014-5793(95)00688-6
A role for active oxygen species as second messengers in the induction of alternative oxidase gene expression in Petunia hybrida cells
A. M. Wagner (1995)
Oxygen processing in photosynthesis: regulation
CH Foyer (2000)
Hydrogen peroxide signaling
N Neill (2002)
Hydrogen peroxide-induced gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Free Rad
R Desikan (2000)
10.1016/S1369-5266(02)00282-0
Hydrogen peroxide signalling.
S. Neill (2002)
10.1016/S0955-0674(97)80068-3
AP-1 function and regulation.
M. Karin (1997)
10.1093/JEXBOT/53.372.1249
Imaging of photo-oxidative stress responses in leaves.
M. Fryer (2002)
10.1105/tpc.11.7.1195
A Recessive Arabidopsis Mutant That Grows Photoautotrophically under Salt Stress Shows Enhanced Active Oxygen Detoxification
K. Tsugane (1999)
10.1073/pnas.012452499
Arabidopsis gp91phox homologues AtrbohD and AtrbohF are required for accumulation of reactive oxygen intermediates in the plant defense response
M. A. Torres (2001)
10.1126/SCIENCE.284.5414.654
Systemic signaling and acclimation in response to excess excitation energy in Arabidopsis.
S. Karpiński (1999)
10.1104/pp.103.020792
Redox Control of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Plants
R. Gupta (2003)
10.1091/MBC.12.2.323
Remodeling of yeast genome expression in response to environmental changes.
H. Causton (2001)
Intracellular singlet oxygen generation by phagocytosing neutrophils in response to particles coated with a chemical trap.
M. Steinbeck (1992)
P1: GDL AR AR213-PP55-15.tex AR213-PP55-15.sgm LaTeX2e
(2002)
10.1007/BF00771012
Generation of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide at the surface of plant cells
A. Vianello (1991)
NADPH-dependent O 2 generation in membrane fractions isolated from wounded potato tubers inoculated with Phytophtora infestans
N Doke (1985)
10.1093/OXFORDJOURNALS.PCP.A029096
Generation of superoxide anion and localization of CuZn-superoxide dismutase in the vascular tissue of spinach hypocotyls: their association with lignification.
K. Ogawa (1997)
Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis
K. Asada (1987)
10.1111/J.1399-3054.1997.TB03468.X
Role of the alternative oxidase in limiting superoxide production by plant mitochondria
A. C. Purvis (1997)
10.1046/J.1365-3040.2002.00859.X
Activation of an oxidative burst is a general feature of sensitive plants exposed to the air pollutant ozone
H. Wohlgemuth (2002)
The impact of oxidative stress on Arabidopsis mitochondria.Plant J.32:891–904
LJ Sweetlove (2002)
Initiation of runaway cell death in an Arabidopsismutant by extracellular superoxide.Science273:1853–56
T Jabs (1996)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.2002.01474.X
The impact of oxidative stress on Arabidopsis mitochondria.
L. Sweetlove (2002)
10.1093/emboj/19.21.5793
Non‐enzymatic triggering of the ceramide signalling cascade by solar UVA radiation
S. Grether-Beck (2000)
10.1104/pp.010999
Oxidative Stress Increased Respiration and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species, Resulting in ATP Depletion, Opening of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition, and Programmed Cell Death1
B. Tiwari (2002)
10.1105/tpc.10.2.255
A Plant Homolog of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase gp91phox Subunit Gene Encodes a Plasma Membrane Protein with Ca2+ Binding Motifs
T. Keller (1998)
10.1105/tpc.13.1.179
Hydrogen Peroxide Acts as a Second Messenger for the Induction of Defense Genes in Tomato Plants in Response to Wounding, Systemin, and Methyl Jasmonate
M. Orozco-Cárdenas (2001)
10.1093/JEXBOT/53.372.1283
Interactions between biosynthesis, compartmentation and transport in the control of glutathione homeostasis and signalling.
G. Noctor (2002)
10.1105/tpc.9.9.1559
Two Distinct Sources of Elicited Reactive Oxygen Species in Tobacco Epidermal Cells.
A. Allan (1997)
10.1105/tpc.10.7.1095
A Porphyrin Pathway Impairment Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Dominant Disease Lesion Mimic Mutant of Maize
G. Hu (1998)
10.1016/S1369-5266(99)80051-X
Role of active oxygen species and NO in plant defence responses.
G. Bolwell (1999)
10.1007/BF02035149
Foliar oxidative stress and insect herbivory: Primary compounds, secondary metabolites, and reactive oxygen species as components of induced resistance
J. Bi (2005)
Changes in stomatal behaviour and guard cell
MR McAinsh (1996)
10.1105/tpc.6.1.65
Evidence for Chilling-Induced Oxidative Stress in Maize Seedlings and a Regulatory Role for Hydrogen Peroxide.
T. K. Prasad (1994)
NADPH-dependent O 2generation in membrane fractions isolated from wounded potato tubers inoculated with Phytophtora infestans
N. Doke (1985)
Twocomponent signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis
I Hwang (2002)
Acti - vation of the OxyR transcription factor by reversible disulfide bond formation
M Zheng (1998)
10.1046/J.1365-313X.2002.01216.X
Evidence of mitochondrial involvement in the transduction of signals required for the induction of genes associated with pathogen attack and senescence.
D. Maxwell (2002)
10.1104/PP.90.1.109
Rapid Stimulation of an Oxidative Burst during Elicitation of Cultured Plant Cells : Role in Defense and Signal Transduction.
I. Apostol (1989)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1995.tb00310.x
Schizosaccharomyces pombe atf1+ encodes a transcription factor required for sexual development and entry into stationary phase.
T. Takeda (1995)
10.1073/PNAS.79.14.4352
Evidence for a respiratory chain in the chloroplast.
P. Bennoun (1982)



This paper is referenced by
10.1016/J.ENVEXPBOT.2012.09.009
Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in a cool-season perennial grass species
Hongmei Du (2013)
10.1111/J.1365-313X.2007.03052.X
The AtGenExpress global stress expression data set: protocols, evaluation and model data analysis of UV-B light, drought and cold stress responses.
J. Kilian (2007)
rowth enhancement and drought tolerance of hybrid poplar upon noculation with endophyte consortia
Andrea Firrincieli (2016)
10.1007/s11738-016-2198-3
Rootstock-induced physiological and biochemical mechanisms of drought tolerance in sweet orange
Luana Pereira Gonçalves (2016)
10.3389/fphys.2015.00286
Role of bioinformatics in establishing microRNAs as modulators of abiotic stress responses: the new revolution
A. Tripathi (2015)
10.1021/pr5004664
Cellular Responses Associated with ROS Production and Cell Fate Decision in Early Stress Response to Iron Limitation in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana
Chun-Shan Luo (2014)
Mode d'action de l'acide ß-aminobutirique chez la vigne : un inducteur de résistance aux pathogènes et étude des mécanismes impliqués dans la sensibilité aux pathogènes du mutant PAD2 d'arabidopsis déficient en glutathion
C. Dubreuil-Maurizi (2010)
10.1201/9781315365930-11
Salinity Stress: “Omics” Approaches
Nisha Khatri (2017)
10.1021/ja4122473
Reversible photochemical control of singlet oxygen generation using diarylethene photochromic switches.
L. Hou (2014)
10.1186/s12933-016-0427-0
Acute blood glucose fluctuation enhances rat aorta endothelial cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vivo
N. Wu (2016)
10.1093/jxb/ert174
Photo-oxidative stress in emerging and senescing leaves: a mirror image?
Marta Juvany (2013)
10.1080/10826068.2018.1446152
Photoautotrophic cultivating options of freshwater green microalgal Chlorococcum humicola for biomass and carotenoid production
Thanaporn Wannachod (2018)
10.1080/02772248.2013.803796
Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on growth and antioxidant system of chickpea seedlings
U. Burman (2013)
10.1111/gcb.13753
Widespread production of nonmicrobial greenhouse gases in soils
Bin Wang (2017)
ASSESSMENT OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES (RILs) FOR BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC STRESSES IN Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss.
P. Kaur (2011)
10.1016/j.plaphy.2015.01.010
Mechanism of artemisinin phytotoxicity action: induction of reactive oxygen species and cell death in lettuce seedlings.
Z. Yan (2015)
10.14232/phd.2987
Detection of singlet oxygen production and its relation to photosystem II photodamage in cyanobacteria and microalgae
Rehman Ateeq Ur (2016)
10.1007/s11738-017-2432-7
Effects of watering regime and nitrogen application rate on the photosynthetic parameters, physiological characteristics, and agronomic traits of rice
Xiaochuang Cao (2017)
10.1186/1472-6750-13-111
CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots trigger DNA repair and antioxidant enzyme systems in Medicago sativa cells in suspension culture
A. R. Santos (2013)
10.1111/mpp.12988
Convergent and distinctive functions of transcription factors VdYap1, VdAtf1, and VdSkn7 in the regulation of nitrosative stress resistance, microsclerotia formation, and virulence in Verticillium dahliae
Chen Tang (2020)
10.4314/JASEM.V20I4.18
Growth performance and phytoremediation ability of Azolla pinnata in produced water
O. Eribo (2017)
10.3390/ijms20194676
Lead, Cadmium and Zinc Phytotoxicity Alter DNA Methylation Levels to Confer Heavy Metal Tolerance in Wheat
Sarfraz Shafiq (2019)
The antioxidant effects of some progressively purified fractions from Helleborus purpurascens
A. Călugăru (2011)
10.1186/s12870-016-0903-4
Strand-specific RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis of genotypes with and without low-phosphorus tolerance provides novel insights into phosphorus-use efficiency in maize
Qingguo Du (2016)
10.4067/S0718-16202012000100007
Cold storage effects on oxidative stress of Red Globe table grape rachises
Reinaldo Campos-Vargas (2012)
Assessment Production of Natural Reactive Oxygen Species Affected on Dormancy Alleviation, Germination and Antioxidant System in Sunflower Seeds
M. Shaaban (2018)
A Sea of Change: Impacts of Reduced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads on Coastal Phytoplankton Communities
A. Burson (2012)
10.1007/s11738-011-0854-1
Erratum to: Sucrose regulated enhanced induction of anthraquinone, phenolics, flavonoids biosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes in adventitious root suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia (L.)
M. A. Baque (2011)
10.1007/s00709-016-0958-y
Modulation of biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and light-harvesting complex in wild-type and gun5 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during impaired chloroplast development
Gopal K. Pattanayak (2016)
10.1007/s13225-012-0156-y
A new currency for mutualism? Fungal endophytes alter antioxidant activity in hosts responding to drought
C. E. Hamilton (2012)
Effects of saline water irrigation on growth, persistence and nutritional quality of Medicago arborea and Atriplex species grown on different soil types
S. Panta (2016)
10.1007/s13258-016-0425-3
Erratum to: Transcriptome analysis reveals salt-stress-regulated biological processes and key pathways in roots of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
N. Chen (2016)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar