Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Coinhibitory Pathways In Immunotherapy For Cancer.

S. Baumeister, G. Freeman, G. Dranoff, A. Sharpe
Published 2016 · Biology, Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
The immune system is capable of recognizing tumors and eliminates many early malignant cells. However, tumors evolve to evade immune attack, and the tumor microenvironment is immunosuppressive. Immune responses are regulated by a number of immunological checkpoints that promote protective immunity and maintain tolerance. T cell coinhibitory pathways restrict the strength and duration of immune responses, thereby limiting immune-mediated tissue damage, controlling resolution of inflammation, and maintaining tolerance to prevent autoimmunity. Tumors exploit these coinhibitory pathways to evade immune eradication. Blockade of the PD-1 and CTLA-4 checkpoints is proving to be an effective and durable cancer immunotherapy in a subset of patients with a variety of tumor types, and additional combinations are further improving response rates. In this review we discuss the immunoregulatory functions of coinhibitory pathways and their translation to effective immunotherapies for cancer.
This paper references
10.1038/nature13988
Checkpoint Blockade Cancer Immunotherapy Targets Tumour-Specific Mutant Antigens
M. M. Gubin (2014)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3723
CSF1/CSF1R blockade reprograms tumor-infiltrating macrophages and improves response to T-cell checkpoint immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer models.
Y. Zhu (2014)
10.1084/JEM.192.7.1027
Engagement of the Pd-1 Immunoinhibitory Receptor by a Novel B7 Family Member Leads to Negative Regulation of Lymphocyte Activation
G. Freeman (2000)
10.1126/science.1129139
Type, Density, and Location of Immune Cells Within Human Colorectal Tumors Predict Clinical Outcome
J. Galon (2006)
10.1016/j.it.2012.10.001
Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and metabolic control of immune responses.
D. Munn (2013)
10.1016/j.immuni.2014.10.017
STING-dependent cytosolic DNA sensing mediates innate immune recognition of immunogenic tumors.
S. Woo (2014)
10.4049/jimmunol.180.9.5916
Regulatory T Cells Inhibit Dendritic Cells by Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 Engagement of MHC Class II1
B. Liang (2008)
10.1084/jem.20132687
Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB–targeting antibodies
S. Madireddi (2014)
10.1038/ni.2496
The receptor PD-1 controls follicular regulatory T cells in the lymph nodes and blood
Peter T Sage (2013)
10.1084/jem.20090847
PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells
Loise M. Francisco (2009)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-3271
Association of PD-1, PD-1 Ligands, and Other Features of the Tumor Immune Microenvironment with Response to Anti–PD-1 Therapy
J. Taube (2014)
10.1056/NEJMoa1504030
Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma.
J. Larkin (2015)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0993
IL-18 induces PD-1-dependent immunosuppression in cancer.
M. Terme (2011)
10.1016/j.ccell.2015.03.001
Immune checkpoint blockade: a common denominator approach to cancer therapy.
S. Topalian (2015)
10.4049/jimmunol.181.7.4832
NFATc1 Regulates PD-1 Expression upon T Cell Activation1
Kenneth J. Oestreich (2008)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0895
Developing a Common Language for Tumor Response to Immunotherapy: Immune-Related Response Criteria Using Unidimensional Measurements
M. Nishino (2013)
10.1097/CJI.0b013e318156e47e
Ipilimumab (Anti-CTLA4 Antibody) Causes Regression of Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Associated With Enteritis and Hypophysitis
J. Yang (2007)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0022
Getting Personal with Neoantigen-Based Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines
N. Hacohen (2013)
10.1084/jem.20101956
Chemokine nitration prevents intratumoral infiltration of antigen-specific T cells
B. Molon (2011)
10.1126/science.aaa1348
Mutational landscape determines sensitivity to PD-1 blockade in non–small cell lung cancer
N. Rizvi (2015)
10.1084/jem.20100643
Targeting Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways to reverse T cell exhaustion and restore anti-tumor immunity
Kaori Sakuishi (2010)
10.3389/fonc.2014.00074
Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Dying the Right Way is a Key to Eliciting Potent Antitumor Immunity
Z. Guo (2014)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2625
Durable Cancer Regression Off-Treatment and Effective Reinduction Therapy with an Anti-PD-1 Antibody
E. Lipson (2012)
10.1002/eji.201041136
Vstm3 is a member of the CD28 family and an important modulator of T‐cell function
S. D. Levin (2011)
10.4049/jimmunol.169.10.5392
Cutting Edge: Molecular Analysis of the Negative Regulatory Function of Lymphocyte Activation Gene-31
C. Workman (2002)
10.3978/j.issn.2304-3865.2012.11.05
The B7-H1/PD-1 pathway in cancers associated with infections and inflammation: opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
P. Ott (2013)
10.1126/science.271.5256.1734
Enhancement of Antitumor Immunity by CTLA-4 Blockade
D. Leach (1996)
10.1016/J.TRIM.2006.09.017
Tryptophan catabolism generates autoimmune-preventive regulatory T cells.
F. Fallarino (2006)
10.1007/s00262-015-1679-3
Gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy as adjuvant to surgery or chemoradiation for pancreatic adenocarcinoma
L. Aguilar (2015)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0092
Severe Cutaneous and Neurologic Toxicity in Melanoma Patients during Vemurafenib Administration Following Anti-PD-1 Therapy
D. Johnson (2013)
10.1097/CMR.0b013e32832eabd5
Spontaneous regression of metastases from melanoma: review of the literature
L. V. Kalialis (2009)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-0244
Differential Expression of Immune-Regulatory Genes Associated with PD-L1 Display in Melanoma: Implications for PD-1 Pathway Blockade
J. Taube (2015)
10.1172/JCI31184
LAG-3 regulates CD8+ T cell accumulation and effector function in murine self- and tumor-tolerance systems.
Joseph F. Grosso (2007)
10.1200/JCO.2008.19.2435
Phase I/II trial of tremelimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
L. Camacho (2009)
10.4049/jimmunol.1100660
Cutting Edge: A Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Programmed Death-1 Homolog Prevents Graft-versus-Host Disease in Mouse Models
D. Flies (2011)
10.1056/NEJMoa1200690
Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer.
S. Topalian (2012)
10.1056/NEJMoa1406498
Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma.
A. Snyder (2014)
10.1056/NEJMoa0810097
Vaccination against HPV-16 oncoproteins for vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.
G. Kenter (2009)
10.1038/ncomms7692
PD-1 alters T-cell metabolic reprogramming by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation
N. Patsoukis (2015)
10.1073/pnas.1009731107
Cooperation of Tim-3 and PD-1 in CD8 T-cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection
Hyun-Tak Jin (2010)
10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70381-4
Tremelimumab for patients with chemotherapy-resistant advanced malignant mesothelioma: an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial.
L. Calabrò (2013)
10.1146/annurev.iy.12.040194.002005
Tumor antigens recognized by T lymphocytes.
T. Boon (1994)
10.1172/JCI66236
Host immunity contributes to the anti-melanoma activity of BRAF inhibitors.
D. Knight (2013)
10.1007/s00262-011-1172-6
An immune-active tumor microenvironment favors clinical response to ipilimumab
R. Ji (2011)
10.1056/NEJMoa1500596
PD-1 Blockade in Tumors with Mismatch-Repair Deficiency.
D. Le (2015)
10.1101/gr.165985.113
Neo-antigens predicted by tumor genome meta-analysis correlate with increased patient survival.
Scott D Brown (2014)
10.1038/ni.2866
Protein Kinase C-η Controls CTLA-4-Mediated Regulatory T Cell Function
Kok-Fai Kong (2014)
10.1056/NEJMoa1504627
Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Squamous-Cell Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
J. Brahmer (2015)
10.1016/1074-7613(95)90125-6
Loss of CTLA-4 leads to massive lymphoproliferation and fatal multiorgan tissue destruction, revealing a critical negative regulatory role of CTLA-4.
E. Tivol (1995)
10.1093/annonc/mdv383
Toxicities of the anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies.
J. Naidoo (2015)
10.1038/415536a
Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease
L. Monney (2002)
10.1073/pnas.1003345107
Tumor-infiltrating NY-ESO-1–specific CD8+ T cells are negatively regulated by LAG-3 and PD-1 in human ovarian cancer
J. Matsuzaki (2010)
10.1038/icb.2012.53
Notch signaling regulates PD‐1 expression during CD8+ T‐cell activation
M. Mathieu (2013)
10.1126/science.1261669
Control of signaling-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells by the tumor suppressor p53
K. W. Yoon (2015)
10.1084/JEM.192.5.755
Perforin-Mediated Cytotoxicity Is Critical for Surveillance of Spontaneous Lymphoma
M. Smyth (2000)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0505
Tremelimumab in Combination with Exemestane in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer and Treatment-Associated Modulation of Inducible Costimulator Expression on Patient T Cells
R. Vonderheide (2010)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1320
A Phase I Study of an Agonist CD40 Monoclonal Antibody (CP-870,893) in Combination with Gemcitabine in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
G. Beatty (2013)
OncologyMeetsImmunology:TheCancer-ImmunityCycle
D. Chen (2013)
10.1038/nm.2438
Imatinib potentiates anti-tumor T cell responses in gastrointestinal stromal tumor through the inhibition of Ido
V. Balachandran (2011)
10.1084/jem.20130066
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is a critical resistance mechanism in antitumor T cell immunotherapy targeting CTLA-4
Rikke B. Holmgaard (2013)
10.1126/science.1160062
CTLA-4 Control over Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Function
K. Wing (2008)
10.1056/NEJMoa1411087
PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma.
S. Ansell (2015)
10.1073/pnas.1120606109
Structure of TIGIT immunoreceptor bound to poliovirus receptor reveals a cell–cell adhesion and signaling mechanism that requires cis-trans receptor clustering
K. F. Stengel (2012)
10.1038/366076A0
B70 antigen is a second ligand for CTLA-4 and CD28
M. Azuma (1993)
10.1126/science.1255904
Immune dysregulation in human subjects with heterozygous germline mutations in CTLA4
H. S. Kuehn (2014)
10.1016/J.CANLET.2005.02.005
The effect of a therapeutic dendritic cell-based cancer vaccination depends on the blockage of CTLA-4 signaling.
O. Met (2006)
10.1056/NEJMoa1412082
Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation.
C. Robert (2015)
10.1016/j.immuni.2013.07.005
Deciphering and reversing tumor immune suppression.
Greg T. Motz (2013)
10.18632/ONCOTARGET.1719
Radiation-induced immunogenic modulation of tumor enhances antigen processing and calreticulin exposure, resulting in enhanced T-cell killing
S. Gameiro (2014)
10.1200/JCO.2011.35.5222
Phase IB study of gene-mediated cytotoxic immunotherapy adjuvant to up-front surgery and intensive timing radiation for malignant glioma.
E. Chiocca (2011)
10.1016/j.immuni.2014.10.019
STING-Dependent Cytosolic DNA Sensing Promotes Radiation-Induced Type I Interferon-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Immunogenic Tumors.
L. Deng (2014)
10.1007/s00262-014-1549-4
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase pathways of pathogenic inflammation and immune escape in cancer
G. Prendergast (2014)
10.1016/j.immuni.2014.02.012
Treg cells expressing the coinhibitory molecule TIGIT selectively inhibit proinflammatory Th1 and Th17 cell responses.
Nicole Joller (2014)
10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa4306
STING agonist formulated cancer vaccines can cure established tumors resistant to PD-1 blockade
J. Fu (2015)
10.1056/NEJMoa1112824
Immunologic correlates of the abscopal effect in a patient with melanoma.
M. Postow (2012)
10.1038/bjc.2013.227
Phase I study of tremelimumab (CP-675 206) plus PF-3512676 (CPG 7909) in patients with melanoma or advanced solid tumours
MichaelJ. Millward (2013)
10.1016/j.humpath.2010.04.005
The phosphatidylserine receptors, T cell immunoglobulin mucin proteins 3 and 4, are markers of histiocytic sarcoma and other histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms.
D. Dorfman (2010)
10.1016/j.it.2011.05.003
Emerging Tim-3 functions in antimicrobial and tumor immunity.
Kaori Sakuishi (2011)
10.1056/NEJMoa1003466
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F. S. Hodi (2010)
10.1084/jem.20130790
RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance
Yanping Xiao (2014)
10.1007/s00262-012-1330-5
T cell profiling reveals high CD4+CTLA-4+ T cell frequency as dominant predictor for survival after Prostate GVAX/ipilimumab treatment
S. J. Santegoets (2012)
10.1084/jem.20100619
VISTA, a novel mouse Ig superfamily ligand that negatively regulates T cell responses
L. Wang (2011)
10.1016/j.immuni.2013.11.017
Tuning of antigen sensitivity by T cell receptor-dependent negative feedback controls T cell effector function in inflamed tissues.
T. Honda (2014)
10.1093/INTIMM/8.5.773
Developmentally regulated expression of the PD-1 protein on the surface of double-negative (CD4-CD8-) thymocytes.
H. Nishimura (1996)
10.1182/blood-2011-06-360321
Tim-3 is an inducible human natural killer cell receptor that enhances interferon gamma production in response to galectin-9.
M. Gleason (2012)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3687
T-regulatory cells: key players in tumor immune escape and angiogenesis.
A. Facciabene (2012)
10.1186/1479-5876-11-215
Combined TIM-3 blockade and CD137 activation affords the long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer
Z. Guo (2013)
10.1016/j.stem.2015.07.011
A TIM-3/Gal-9 Autocrine Stimulatory Loop Drives Self-Renewal of Human Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells and Leukemic Progression.
Y. Kikushige (2015)
10.1038/nature14426
Mutant MHC class II epitopes drive therapeutic immune responses to cancer
S. Kreiter (2015)
10.1084/JEM.190.3.355
Combination Immunotherapy of B16 Melanoma Using Anti–Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4 (Ctla-4) and Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (Gm-Csf)-Producing Vaccines Induces Rejection of Subcutaneous and Metastatic Tumors Accompanied by Autoimmune Depigmentation
A. van Elsas (1999)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0551
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Glioblastoma Are Associated with Specific Genomic Alterations and Related to Transcriptional Class
W. C. Rutledge (2013)
10.1126/science.aaa8172
The future of immune checkpoint therapy
P. Sharma (2015)
10.1038/ni.1679
Coregulation of CD8+ T cell exhaustion by multiple inhibitory receptors during chronic viral infection
S. Blackburn (2009)
10.1126/scitranslmed.3008002
Pituitary Expression of CTLA-4 Mediates Hypophysitis Secondary to Administration of CTLA-4 Blocking Antibody
Shintaro Iwama (2014)
10.1084/JEM.176.2.327
Characterization of the lymphocyte activation gene 3-encoded protein. A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens
E. Baixeras (1992)
10.1038/70932
B7-H1, a third member of the B7 family, co-stimulates T-cell proliferation and interleukin-10 secretion
H. Dong (1999)
10.1056/NEJMoa1200694
Safety and activity of anti-PD-L1 antibody in patients with advanced cancer.
J. Brahmer (2012)
10.1002/eji.200839116
A novel molecular interaction for the adhesion of follicular CD4 T cells to follicular DC
K. S. Boles (2009)
10.4161/onci.23033
Phase I study of the CD40 agonist antibody CP-870,893 combined with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors
R. Vonderheide (2013)
10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70189-5
Ipilimumab versus placebo after radiotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that had progressed after docetaxel chemotherapy (CA184-043): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.
E. Kwon (2014)
10.1038/ni1102-991
Cancer immunoediting: from immunosurveillance to tumor escape
Gavin P Dunn (2002)
10.1182/blood-2010-05-282780
Integrative analysis reveals selective 9p24.1 amplification, increased PD-1 ligand expression, and further induction via JAK2 in nodular sclerosing Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma.
M. Green (2010)
10.1200/JCO.2008.26.15_SUPPL.3007
Phase I study of BMS-663513, a fully human anti-CD137 agonist monoclonal antibody, in patients (pts) with advanced cancer (CA)
M. Sznol (2008)
10.1016/j.immuni.2013.07.012
Oncology meets immunology: the cancer-immunity cycle.
D. Chen (2013)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-4174
OX40 is a potent immune-stimulating target in late-stage cancer patients.
B. Curti (2013)
10.1172/JCI67313
Irradiation and anti-PD-L1 treatment synergistically promote antitumor immunity in mice.
L. Deng (2014)
10.1200/JCO.2013.31.15_SUPPL.LBA9008
OPTiM: A randomized phase III trial of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) versus subcutaneous (SC) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for the treatment (tx) of unresected stage IIIB/C and IV melanoma.
Robert H. I. Andtbacka (2013)
10.1200/JCO.2010.28.3994
Phase II study of the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, tremelimumab, in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
K. Chung (2010)
10.1126/science.1246886
Association of the Autoimmune Disease Scleroderma with an Immunologic Response to Cancer
Christine G. Joseph (2014)
10.1056/NEJMoa1104621
Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma.
C. Robert (2011)
10.1056/NEJMc1302338
Hepatotoxicity with combination of vemurafenib and ipilimumab.
A. Ribas (2013)
10.1038/ni1271
The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity
C. Zhu (2005)
10.1182/blood-2010-01-265975
B7-H1/CD80 interaction is required for the induction and maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance.
Jang-June Park (2010)
10.1056/NEJMoa1302369
Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in advanced melanoma.
J. Wolchok (2013)
10.1056/NEJMoa1510665
Nivolumab versus Everolimus in Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.
R. Motzer (2015)
10.1056/NEJMoa1305133
Safety and tumor responses with lambrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in melanoma.
O. Hamid (2013)
10.1056/NEJMoa1414428
Nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab in untreated melanoma.
Michael A. Postow (2015)
Immune-mediated inhibition of metastases after treatment with local radiation and CTLA-4 blockade in a mouse model of breast cancer.
S. Demaria (2005)
10.1200/JCO.2011.37.5394
Safety and efficacy of combination immunotherapy with interferon alfa-2b and tremelimumab in patients with stage IV melanoma.
A. Tarhini (2012)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1212
Vaccination with LAG-3Ig (IMP321) and Peptides Induces Specific CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Responses in Metastatic Melanoma Patients—Report of a Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial
A. Legat (2015)
10.1038/nature13904
MPDL3280A (anti-PD-L1) treatment leads to clinical activity in metastatic bladder cancer
T. Powles (2014)
10.1200/JCO.2014.32.15_SUPPL.3007
A phase 1 study of PF-05082566 (anti-4-1BB) in patients with advanced cancer.
N. Segal (2014)
10.4049/jimmunol.175.11.7372
Programmed Death-1 (PD-1):PD-Ligand 1 Interactions Inhibit TCR-Mediated Positive Selection of Thymocytes1
M. Keir (2005)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-1620
Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T-cell function to promote tumoral immune escape.
Seng-Ryong Woo (2012)
10.1038/ni846
CTLA-4–Ig regulates tryptophan catabolism in vivo
U. Grohmann (2002)
10.1016/j.ccell.2014.10.018
The immunoreceptor TIGIT regulates antitumor and antiviral CD8(+) T cell effector function.
Robert J. Johnston (2014)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-2189
Phase I Trial of Overlapping Long Peptides from a Tumor Self-Antigen and Poly-ICLC Shows Rapid Induction of Integrated Immune Response in Ovarian Cancer Patients
P. Sabbatini (2012)
10.1073/PNAS.95.17.10067
CTLA-4 blockade synergizes with tumor-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for treatment of an experimental mammary carcinoma.
A. Hurwitz (1998)
10.1371/journal.pone.0089350
PD-1 Blockade and OX40 Triggering Synergistically Protects against Tumor Growth in a Murine Model of Ovarian Cancer
Z. Guo (2014)
10.1002/JNR.20881
Estrogen-mediated immunomodulation involves reduced activation of effector T cells, potentiation of Treg cells, and enhanced expression of the PD-1 costimulatory pathway.
Magdalena J. Polanczyk (2006)
10.4049/jimmunol.172.9.5450
Lymphocyte Activation Gene-3 (CD223) Regulates the Size of the Expanding T Cell Population Following Antigen Activation In Vivo1
C. Workman (2004)
10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0310
Activation of the PD-1 pathway contributes to immune escape in EGFR-driven lung tumors.
E. Akbay (2013)
10.1172/JCI80445
TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients.
Joe-Marc Chauvin (2015)
10.1097/CJI.0b013e31829fb7a2
Evaluation of Ipilimumab in Combination With Allogeneic Pancreatic Tumor Cells Transfected With a GM-CSF Gene in Previously Treated Pancreatic Cancer
D. Le (2013)
10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.016
Metabolic Competition in the Tumor Microenvironment Is a Driver of Cancer Progression
Chih-Hao Chang (2015)
10.1038/nature04444
Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection
D. Barber (2006)
10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70007-4
Combined immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.
A. V. D. van den Eertwegh (2012)
10.1038/nm.2232
Integrative genomic analysis of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells reveals that PD-1 inhibits T cell function by upregulating BATF
M. Quigley (2010)
10.1084/jem.20051776
Tissue expression of PD-L1 mediates peripheral T cell tolerance
M. Keir (2006)
10.1016/j.jhep.2013.02.022
A clinical trial of CTLA-4 blockade with tremelimumab in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and chronic hepatitis C.
B. Sangro (2013)
10.2217/cns.13.35
Oncolytic virotherapy for gliomas: steps toward the future.
Johanna K. Kaufmann (2013)
10.1038/85330
PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation
Yvette Latchman (2001)
10.1001/jama.2014.13943
Ipilimumab plus sargramostim vs ipilimumab alone for treatment of metastatic melanoma: a randomized clinical trial.
F. S. Hodi (2014)
10.1038/nature01621
Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease
H. Ueda (2003)
10.1016/j.immuni.2013.06.014
Mechanism of action of conventional and targeted anticancer therapies: reinstating immunosurveillance.
L. Zitvogel (2013)
10.1200/JCO.2014.32.15_SUPPL.5010
Nivolumab (anti-PD-1; BMS-936558, ONO-4538) in combination with sunitinib or pazopanib in patients (pts) with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
A. Amin (2014)
10.1007/s00262-011-1193-1
Phase I trial of tremelimumab in combination with short-term androgen deprivation in patients with PSA-recurrent prostate cancer
D. McNeel (2011)
10.1038/nature07662
Enhancing SIV-Specific Immunity In Vivo by PD-1 Blockade
V. Velu (2009)
10.1038/nature13954
PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance
P. Tumeh (2014)
10.1200/JCO.2014.56.2736
Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Survival Data From Phase II and Phase III Trials of Ipilimumab in Unresectable or Metastatic Melanoma.
D. Schadendorf (2015)
10.1084/jem.20121416
PD-1 promotes immune exhaustion by inducing antiviral T cell motility paralysis
B. Zinselmeyer (2013)
10.1053/j.seminoncol.2010.09.008
Clinical experiences with anti-CD137 and anti-PD1 therapeutic antibodies.
P. Ascierto (2010)
10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.033
Molecular and Genetic Properties of Tumors Associated with Local Immune Cytolytic Activity
M. Rooney (2015)
10.1126/science.aaa4971
Neoantigens in cancer immunotherapy
T. Schumacher (2015)
10.1038/nri3799
Balancing natural killer cell activation through paired receptors
L. Martinet (2015)
10.1080/2162402X.2015.1008824
Interferon-γ-induced activation of JAK1 and JAK2 suppresses tumor cell susceptibility to NK cells through upregulation of PD-L1 expression
R. Bellucci (2015)
10.4049/jimmunol.173.2.945
SHP-1 and SHP-2 Associate with Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-Based Switch Motif of Programmed Death 1 upon Primary Human T Cell Stimulation, but Only Receptor Ligation Prevents T Cell Activation1
J. Chemnitz (2004)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0053
Bevacizumab plus Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma
F. S. Hodi (2014)
10.1126/science.270.5238.985
Lymphoproliferative Disorders with Early Lethality in Mice Deficient in Ctla-4
P. Waterhouse (1995)
10.2217/fon.10.66
OPTIM trial: a Phase III trial of an oncolytic herpes virus encoding GM-CSF for unresectable stage III or IV melanoma.
H. Kaufman (2010)
10.1007/BF00241263
Cellular expression and tissue distribution of the human LAG-3-encoded protein, an MHC class II ligand
B. Huard (2004)
10.1093/annonc/mdt107
Ipilimumab alone or in combination with radiotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from an open-label, multicenter phase I/II study.
S. Slovin (2013)
10.4161/onci.20850
B7-H1 limits the entry of effector CD8+ T cells to the memory pool by upregulating Bim
Rachel M. Gibbons (2012)
10.1128/MCB.25.21.9543-9553.2005
CTLA-4 and PD-1 Receptors Inhibit T-Cell Activation by Distinct Mechanisms
R. Parry (2005)
10.1056/NEJMoa1407222
Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia.
Shannon L Maude (2014)
CTLA-4 blockade in tumor models: an overview of preclinical and translational research.
Joseph F. Grosso (2013)
10.1038/nrc3237
Combining immunotherapy and targeted therapies in cancer treatment
M. Vanneman (2012)
10.1126/science.aaa1663
Patients with LRBA deficiency show CTLA4 loss and immune dysregulation responsive to abatacept therapy
B. Lo (2015)
10.1200/JCO.2011.38.4032
Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line treatment in stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase II study.
T. Lynch (2012)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0115
An Abscopal Response to Radiation and Ipilimumab in a Patient with Metastatic Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer
E. Golden (2013)
10.1038/ni.1674
The surface protein TIGIT suppresses T cell activation by promoting the generation of mature immunoregulatory dendritic cells
X. Yu (2009)
10.1073/pnas.1417320112
Ipilimumab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of regulatory T cells ex vivo by nonclassical monocytes in melanoma patients
E. Romano (2015)
Regulation of surface and intracellular expression of CTLA4 on mouse T cells.
M. Alegre (1996)
10.1038/nm.3746
Autosomal-dominant immune dysregulation syndrome in humans with CTLA4 mutations
Désirée Schubert (2014)
10.4049/jimmunol.1100714
Cutting Edge: Accelerated Autoimmune Diabetes in the Absence of LAG-3
M. Bettini (2011)
10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00083-2
Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): a randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial.
A. Ribas (2015)
10.1002/j.1460-2075.1992.tb05481.x
Induced expression of PD‐1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, upon programmed cell death.
Y. Ishida (1992)
10.1038/ni.2762
A rheostat for immune responses: the unique properties of PD-1 and their advantages for clinical application
T. Okazaki (2013)
10.1126/scitranslmed.3008095
Localized Oncolytic Virotherapy Overcomes Systemic Tumor Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy
D. Zamarin (2014)
10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2007.05.016
Programmed death-1 ligand 1 interacts specifically with the B7-1 costimulatory molecule to inhibit T cell responses.
M. Butte (2007)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0160
Paradoxical Activation of T Cells via Augmented ERK Signaling Mediated by a RAF Inhibitor
M. Callahan (2013)
10.1097/CJI.0000000000000007
CTLA-4 Blockade Enhances Antitumor Immunity of Intratumoral Injection of Immature Dendritic Cells into Irradiated Tumor in a Mouse Colon Cancer Model
Cheol-Hun Son (2014)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0226
Induced PD-L1 Expression Mediates Acquired Resistance to Agonistic Anti-CD40 Treatment
A. Zippelius (2015)
Activity of Anti-PD-1 in Murine Tumor Models: Role of “Host” PD-L1 and Synergistic Effect of Anti-PD-1 and Anti-CTLA-4 (48.37)
A. Korman (2007)
10.1038/ni739
Identification of Tapr (an airway hyperreactivity regulatory locus) and the linked Tim gene family
Jennifer J. McIntire (2001)
10.18632/ONCOTARGET.2357
A first in man phase I trial of the oral immunomodulator, indoximod, combined with docetaxel in patients with metastatic solid tumors
H. Soliman (2014)
10.1126/science.1203486
Cancer Immunoediting: Integrating Immunity’s Roles in Cancer Suppression and Promotion
R. Schreiber (2011)
10.1200/JCO.2014.32.15_SUPPL.3010
Preliminary results from a phase 1/2 study of INCB024360 combined with ipilimumab (ipi) in patients (pts) with melanoma.
Geoffrey T. Gibney (2014)
10.1126/scitranslmed.3003689
Colocalization of Inflammatory Response with B7-H1 Expression in Human Melanocytic Lesions Supports an Adaptive Resistance Mechanism of Immune Escape
J. Taube (2012)
10.4049/jimmunol.0903059
T Cell/Transmembrane, Ig, and Mucin-3 Allelic Variants Differentially Recognize Phosphatidylserine and Mediate Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells
R. Dekruyff (2010)
10.1016/j.stem.2010.11.014
TIM-3 is a promising target to selectively kill acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.
Y. Kikushige (2010)
10.1056/NEJMc1114329
Vemurafenib sensitivity skin reaction after ipilimumab.
J. Harding (2012)
10.1126/science.1202947
Trans-Endocytosis of CD80 and CD86: A Molecular Basis for the Cell-Extrinsic Function of CTLA-4
O. Qureshi (2011)
10.1200/JCO.2005.01.128
Autoimmunity in a phase I trial of a fully human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody with multiple melanoma peptides and Montanide ISA 51 for patients with resected stages III and IV melanoma.
Kristin M. Sanderson (2005)
10.1084/jem.20100466
PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory co-receptors act synergistically to prevent autoimmunity in mice
T. Okazaki (2011)
CD8+ T cells infiltrated within cancer cell nests as a prognostic factor in human colorectal cancer.
Y. Naito (1998)
10.1002/cncr.25639
Phase 1 dose‐escalation trial of tremelimumab plus sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
B. Rini (2011)
10.1200/JCO.2014.32.15_SUPPL.9029
Primary analysis of a phase 1b multicenter trial to evaluate safety and efficacy of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) and ipilimumab (ipi) in previously untreated, unresected stage IIIB-IV melanoma.
I. Puzanov (2014)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2708
A Pilot Trial Using Lymphocytes Genetically Engineered with an NY-ESO-1–Reactive T-cell Receptor: Long-term Follow-up and Correlates with Response
P. Robbins (2014)
10.4049/jimmunol.1003208
IFN-α Directly Promotes Programmed Cell Death-1 Transcription and Limits the Duration of T Cell-Mediated Immunity
S. Terawaki (2011)
10.1056/NEJMoa1503093
Pembrolizumab versus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma.
C. Robert (2015)
10.1073/pnas.1420370112
Immune-checkpoint proteins VISTA and PD-1 nonredundantly regulate murine T-cell responses
J. Liu (2015)
10.1016/J.IMMUNI.2004.08.010
Role of LAG-3 in regulatory T cells.
C. Huang (2004)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1506
VISTA Regulates the Development of Protective Antitumor Immunity.
I. Le Mercier (2014)
10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01011.x
Intrinsic and extrinsic control of peripheral T‐cell tolerance by costimulatory molecules of the CD28/ B7 family
Hélène Bour-Jordan (2011)
10.1038/nature13848
CEACAM1 regulates TIM-3-mediated tolerance and exhaustion
Yu-Hwa Huang (2015)
10.1074/jbc.M109.077156
Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells 1 (Dies1) Is a Component of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) Signaling Pathway Required for Proper Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells*
Luigi Aloia (2009)
10.1200/JCO.2006.08.3311
Clinical activity and immune modulation in cancer patients treated with CP-870,893, a novel CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody.
R. Vonderheide (2007)
10.4049/jimmunol.1003081
Cutting Edge: TIGIT Has T Cell-Intrinsic Inhibitory Functions
Nicole Joller (2011)
10.1038/ni.2046
T-bet represses expression of PD-1 and sustains virus-specific CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection
Charlly Kao (2011)
10.1371/journal.pone.0109080
Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 (LAG-3) Modulates the Ability of CD4 T-cells to Be Suppressed In Vivo
Nicholas M. Durham (2014)
10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00362-X
The interaction properties of costimulatory molecules revisited.
A. V. Collins (2002)
10.4049/jimmunol.178.3.1505
Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on the Lymphocyte-Endothelium Interactions: Identification of Caveolin-1 and Nitric Oxide as Control Points of Endothelial Cell Anergy1
C. Bouzin (2007)
10.1097/COC.0b013e318209cda9
Patient Responses to Ipilimumab, a Novel Immunopotentiator for Metastatic Melanoma: How Different are these From Conventional Treatment Responses?
G. Pennock (2012)
10.1084/JEM.191.4.661
Differential Tumor Surveillance by Natural Killer (Nk) and Nkt Cells
M. Smyth (2000)
10.1634/THEONCOLOGIST.12-9-1084
A mechanistic perspective of monoclonal antibodies in cancer therapy beyond target-related effects.
S. Strome (2007)
10.1186/1756-8722-7-44
A phase II study of dacetuzumab (SGN-40) in patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and correlative analyses of patient-specific factors
S. de Vos (2014)
10.1038/nri2506
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system
D. Gabrilovich (2009)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0013
Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies of IgG2a Isotype Enhance Antitumor Activity through Reduction of Intratumoral Regulatory T Cells
Mark Selby (2013)
10.1200/JCO.2013.52.0924
Multicenter phase II study of mogamulizumab (KW-0761), a defucosylated anti-cc chemokine receptor 4 antibody, in patients with relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
M. Ogura (2014)
10.1093/JNCI/91.11.911
Can skin cancers be minimized or prevented in organ transplant patients?
J. McCann (1999)
10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1504
VISTA is an immune checkpoint molecule for human T cells.
J. L. Lines (2014)
10.1200/JCO.2009.26.7609
Phase I study of single-agent anti-programmed death-1 (MDX-1106) in refractory solid tumors: safety, clinical activity, pharmacodynamics, and immunologic correlates.
J. Brahmer (2010)
10.1016/j.celrep.2015.04.031
Direct Activation of STING in the Tumor Microenvironment Leads to Potent and Systemic Tumor Regression and Immunity.
Leticia Corrales (2015)
10.1146/annurev.immunol.26.021607.090331
PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity.
M. Keir (2008)
10.1200/JCO.2012.44.6112
Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standard-of-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma.
A. Ribas (2013)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2318
A Pilot Trial of CTLA-4 Blockade with Human Anti-CTLA-4 in Patients with Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer
E. Small (2007)
10.1007/82_2010_114
LAG-3 in Cancer Immunotherapy.
Monica V. Goldberg (2011)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-15-0066
Single Institution Experience of Ipilimumab 3 mg/kg with Sargramostim (GM-CSF) in Metastatic Melanoma
J. Luke (2015)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1624
Guidelines for the Evaluation of Immune Therapy Activity in Solid Tumors: Immune-Related Response Criteria
J. Wolchok (2009)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0209
Tumors: Wounds That Do Not Heal—Redux
H. Dvorak (2015)
10.1016/j.it.2015.02.003
The STING pathway and the T cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment.
S. Woo (2015)
10.1073/pnas.1407447111
Disruption of the immune-checkpoint VISTA gene imparts a proinflammatory phenotype with predisposition to the development of autoimmunity
L. Wang (2014)
10.1111/j.0105-2896.2010.00903.x
TIM genes: a family of cell surface phosphatidylserine receptors that regulate innate and adaptive immunity
G. Freeman (2010)
10.1371/journal.pone.0084927
Combinatorial PD-1 Blockade and CD137 Activation Has Therapeutic Efficacy in Murine Cancer Models and Synergizes with Cisplatin
H. Wei (2013)
10.1084/JEM.194.6.823
Synergism of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4 Blockade and Depletion of Cd25+ Regulatory T Cells in Antitumor Therapy Reveals Alternative Pathways for Suppression of Autoreactive Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses
R. P. Sutmuller (2001)
10.1084/JEM.192.2.303
Immunologic Self-Tolerance Maintained by Cd25+Cd4+Regulatory T Cells Constitutively Expressing Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4
T. Takahashi (2000)
10.1126/SCIENCE.7694363
Cloning of B7-2: a CTLA-4 counter-receptor that costimulates human T cell proliferation.
G. Freeman (1993)
10.1093/annonc/mds213
Ipilimumab in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin as first-line therapy in extensive-disease-small-cell lung cancer: results from a randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase 2 trial.
M. Reck (2013)
10.1200/JCO.2005.01.109
Antitumor activity in melanoma and anti-self responses in a phase I trial with the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody CP-675,206.
A. Ribas (2005)
10.1038/35074122
IFNγ and lymphocytes prevent primary tumour development and shape tumour immunogenicity
V. Shankaran (2001)
10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4079
Phase I Safety and Pharmacokinetic Study of CT-011, a Humanized Antibody Interacting with PD-1, in Patients with Advanced Hematologic Malignancies
R. Berger (2008)
10.1371/journal.pone.0019499
Combination CTLA-4 Blockade and 4-1BB Activation Enhances Tumor Rejection by Increasing T-Cell Infiltration, Proliferation, and Cytokine Production
M. Curran (2011)
10.1073/pnas.0915174107
PD-1 and CTLA-4 combination blockade expands infiltrating T cells and reduces regulatory T and myeloid cells within B16 melanoma tumors
M. Curran (2010)
10.1073/pnas.0712237105
Immunologic and clinical effects of antibody blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 in previously vaccinated cancer patients
F. S. Hodi (2008)
10.1038/ni.1790
Interactions between PD-1 and PD-L1 promote tolerance by blocking the TCR–induced stop signal
B. Fife (2009)



This paper is referenced by
10.13105/wjma.v7.i3.101
PD-1/PD-L1 antagonists in gastric cancer: Current studies and perspectives
Jian Li (2019)
10.7554/eLife.55185
The tumor microenvironment as a metabolic barrier to effector T cells and immunotherapy
A. R. Lim (2020)
10.1038/nri.2016.99
Emerging roles of p53 and other tumour-suppressor genes in immune regulation
C. Muñoz-Fontela (2016)
10.1186/s40425-019-0761-3
Monalizumab: inhibiting the novel immune checkpoint NKG2A
T. van Hall (2019)
10.1016/j.tcb.2019.01.003
Mutational and Antigenic Landscape in Tumor Progression and Cancer Immunotherapy.
I. Vitale (2019)
10.1073/pnas.1905005116
Immuno-PET identifies the myeloid compartment as a key contributor to the outcome of the antitumor response under PD-1 blockade
Mohammad Rashidian (2019)
10.1073/pnas.1918215117
Positive allosteric modulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 restrains neuroinflammation
G. Mondanelli (2020)
The prognostic impact of immune-related markers in non-small cell lung cancer
S. Hald (2017)
10.1073/pnas.1710754114
Targeting CXCR4-dependent immunosuppressive Ly6Clow monocytes improves antiangiogenic therapy in colorectal cancer
K. Jung (2017)
10.1093/ABT/TBY005
Preclinical characterization of Sintilimab, a fully human anti-PD-1 therapeutic monoclonal antibody for cancer
Shuang Zhang (2018)
10.1172/jci.insight.98674
TSC2-deficient tumors have evidence of T cell exhaustion and respond to anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy.
H. Liu (2018)
10.1016/j.cell.2019.04.041
Multifunctional Natural Killer Cell Engagers Targeting NKp46 Trigger Protective Tumor Immunity
L. Gauthier (2019)
10.1016/j.coviro.2020.02.005
Checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of JC virus-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
E. Beck (2020)
10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.11.010
Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment via Oncolytic Viruses and CSF-1R Inhibition Synergistically Enhances Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy.
G. Shi (2019)
10.3389/fimmu.2018.01614
Glyco-Engineered Anti-Human Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Antibody Mediates Stronger CD8 T Cell Activation Than Its Normal Glycosylated and Non-Glycosylated Counterparts
C. Goletz (2018)
10.1146/annurev-immunol-051116-052302
Synthetic Immunology: Hacking Immune Cells to Expand Their Therapeutic Capabilities.
Kole T. Roybal (2017)
10.20517/2394-5079.2018.45
Immunotherapy: a new era for hepatocellular carcinoma
Ya-jing He (2018)
10.18632/genesandcancer.180
The promising immune checkpoint LAG-3: from tumor microenvironment to cancer immunotherapy
L. Long (2018)
10.1111/bjh.15514
PD‐1 is highly expressed by neoplastic B‐cells in Richter transformation
A. Behdad (2019)
10.1038/nri.2017.112
Immune checkpoint blockade in infectious diseases
M. Wykes (2018)
10.1016/j.tranon.2019.04.017
Interferon β and Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 Checkpoint Blockade Cooperate in NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells
A. Makowska (2019)
10.1016/j.jaut.2019.05.013
Analysis of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in human autoimmune thyroid disease: Insights into pathogenesis and clues to immunotherapy associated thyroid autoimmunity.
Daniel Álvarez-Sierra (2019)
10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.03.012
Coalescing Lessons from Oxygen Sensing, Tumor Metabolism, and Epigenetics to Target VHL loss in Kidney Cancer.
A. Chakraborty (2020)
10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.02.002
The expression and immunoregulation of immune checkpoint molecule VISTA in autoimmune diseases and cancers.
Geng Wang (2020)
10.1002/hep.29360
Programmed cell death‐1 (PD‐1) checkpoint blockade in combination with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor restrains hepatocellular carcinoma growth induced by hepatoma cell–intrinsic PD‐1
H. Li (2017)
10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-19-0702
Fatty Acid Oxidation Controls CD8+ Tissue-Resident Memory T-cell Survival in Gastric Adenocarcinoma
R. Lin (2020)
10.1007/s10549-020-05954-2
Immune microenvironment in different molecular subtypes of ductal breast carcinoma
Mona Sadeghalvad (2020)
10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.09.009
Gene-modified dendritic cell vaccines for cancer.
R. Abraham (2016)
10.3390/cells9061376
PD-1: Its Discovery, Involvement in Cancer Immunotherapy, and Beyond
Y. Ishida (2020)
10.1038/s41568-019-0183-z
Phagocytosis checkpoints as new targets for cancer immunotherapy
Mingye Feng (2019)
10.1016/j.immuni.2018.03.007
Combination Cancer Therapy with Immune Checkpoint Blockade: Mechanisms and Strategies.
Shetal A Patel (2018)
10.1016/j.celrep.2018.06.038
Myosin II Synergizes with F-Actin to Promote DNGR-1-Dependent Cross-Presentation of Dead Cell-Associated Antigens
O. Schulz (2018)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar