Response Of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Generation To Steady-state Oxygen Tension: Implications For Hypoxic Cell Signaling
Mitochondria are proposed to play an important role in hypoxic cell signaling. One currently accepted signaling paradigm is that the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases in hypoxia. This is paradoxical, because oxygen is a substrate for ROS generation. Although the response of isolated mitochondrial ROS generation to [O2] has been examined previously, such investigations did not apply rigorous control over [O2] within the hypoxic signaling range. With the use of open-flow respirometry and fluorimetry, the current study determined the response of isolated rat liver mitochondrial ROS generation to defined steady-state [O2] as low as 0.1 μM. In mitochondria respiring under state 4 (quiescent) or state 3 (ATP turnover) conditions, decreased ROS generation was always observed at low [O2]. It is concluded that the biochemical mechanism to facilitate increased ROS generation in response to hypoxia in cells is not intrinsic to the mitochondrial respiratory chain alone but may involve other factors. The implications for hypoxic cell signaling are discussed.