IL-8 Activates Endothelial Cell CXCR1 And CXCR2 Through Rho And Rac Signaling Pathways
Stimulation of microvascular endothelial cells with interleukin (IL)-8 leads to cytoskeletal reorganization, which is mediated by combined activation of the CXCR1 and the CXCR2. In the early phase actin stress fibers appear, followed by cortical actin accumulation and cell retraction leading to gap formation between cells. The early response (between 1 and 5 min) is inhibited by an antibody that blocks the CXCR1. The later phase (from about 5 to 60 min), which is associated with cell retraction, is prevented by anti-CXCR2 antibody. Furthermore, anti-CXCR2, but not anti-CXCR1, antibody blocked IL-8-mediated haptotaxis of endothelial cells on collagen. The later phase of the IL-8-mediated actin response is inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating that the CXCR2 couples to Gi. In contrast, the early phase is blocked by C3 botulinum toxin, which inactivates Rho, and by Y-27632, which inhibits Rho kinase, but not by pertussis toxin. Furthermore, the early CXCR1-mediated formation of stress fibers was prevented by dominant negative Rho. Dominant negative Rac on the other hand initially translocated to actin-rich filopodia after stimulation with IL-8 and later prevented cell retraction by blocking the CXCR2-mediated cytoskeletal response. These results indicate that IL-8 activates both the CXCR1 and the CXCR2 on microvascular endothelial cells, using different signal transduction cascades. The retraction of endothelial cells due to activation of the CXCR2 may contribute to the increased vascular permeability observed in acute inflammation and during the angiogenic response.