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The Effect Of Bilateral Cold Block Of The Primate Face Primary Somatosensory Cortex On The Performance Of Trained Tongue-protrusion Task And Biting Tasks.
Published 1993 · Psychology, Medicine
1. Studies using ablation, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and surface stimulation, and single-neuron recordings have suggested that the primate primary somatosensory cortex (SI) may play an important role in movement control. Our aim was to determine whether bilateral inactivation of face SI would indeed interfere with the control of tongue or jaw-closing movements. 2. Effects of reversible inactivation by cooling of face SI was investigated in two monkeys trained to perform both a tongue-protrusion task and a biting task. The cooling experiments were carried out after the orofacial representation within SI was identified by systematically defining the mechanoreceptive field of single neurons recorded in face SI. The deficits in the tongue or jaw-closing movement were evaluated by the success rates for the monkeys' performance of both tasks and by the force and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the masseter, genioglossus, and digastric muscles associated with the tasks. 3. During bilateral cooling of face SI, there was a statistically significant reduction in the success rates for the performance of the tongue-protrusion task in comparison with control series of trials while the thermodes used to cool face SI were kept at 37 degrees C. Detailed analyses of force and EMG activity showed that the principal deficit was the inability of the monkeys to maintain a steady tongue-protrusive force in the force holding period during each trial and to exert a consistent tongue-protrusion force between different trials. The task performance returned to control protocol levels at 4 min after commencement of rewarming. 4. Identical cooling conditions did not significantly affect the success rates for the performance of the biting task. Although the extent of the deficit was not severe enough to cause a significant reduction in successful rates for the biting task, cooling did significantly affect the ability of the monkeys to maintain a steady force in the holding period during each trial and to exert a consistent force between different trials. In one monkey the success rate of the biting task was also not affected by bilaterally cooling of face SI with a pair of larger thermodes placed on the dura over most of the face SI, face primary motor cortex (face MI), and adjacent cortical regions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)