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A Review Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Nanoparticle-based Oral Insulin Delivery Systems

Jeffrey W. Card, Bernadene A. Magnuson

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Nanotechnology is providing new and innovative means to detect, diagnose, and treat disease. In this regard, numerous nanoparticle-based approaches have been taken in an effort to develop an effective oral insulin therapy for the treatment of diabetes. This review summarizes efficacy data from studies that have evaluated oral insulin therapies in experimental models. Also provided here is an overview of the limited safety data that have been reported in these studies. To date, the most promising approaches for nanoparticle-based oral insulin therapy appear to involve the incorporation of insulin into complex multilayered nanoparticles that are mucoadhesive, biodegradable, biocompatible, and acid protected and into nanoparticles that are designed to take advantage of the vitamin B12 uptake pathway. It is anticipated that the continued investigation and optimization of nanoparticle-based formulations for oral delivery of insulin will lead to a much sought-after noninvasive treatment for diabetes. Such investigations also may provide insight into the use of nanoparticle-based formulations for peptide- and protein-based oral treatment of other diseases and for various food-related purposes.