A Model Of Low-flow Ischemia And Reperfusion In Single, Beating Adult Cardiomyocytes
The present study was undertaken to comprehensively characterize low-flow ischemia and reperfusion in single adult cardiomyocytes and to determine whether it is important to control contractile activity. The ischemia-mimetic solution was hypoxic, acidic (pH 6.0), and deficient in glucose but contained elevated KCl. Cardiomyocytes were stimulated to contract throughout ischemia and during reperfusion with control perfusate. After the ischemia-reperfusion insult, cells exhibited poor recovery of active cell shortening, a decrease in passive cell length, increased frequency of necrosis, lower ATP content, and evidence of the generation of oxygen-derived free radicals within the cells. Intracellular lactate concentration increased, pH decreased, and Ca2+ transients were depressed during the ischemic insult, but the latter two parameters recovered partially on reperfusion. Basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration was elevated during ischemia and early into reperfusion. Recovery was attenuated in cells that were electrically stimulated to contract throughout ischemia. The duration of ischemia, stimulation frequency, and composition of the ischemia-mimetic solution were important variables. The inclusion of 10 mM lactate in the ischemia-mimetic solution significantly aggravated all the parameters examined above. Our data demonstrate that 1) an ischemia-mimetic solution administered to single, isolated adult cardiomyocytes can reproduce many of the responses observed in whole hearts, 2) caution should be used in adding lactate to an ischemic solution, and 3) it is important to stimulate contractile activity throughout ischemia to reproduce the effects of ischemia in whole hearts.