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Mitochondrial Content And Distribution Changes Specific To Mouse Diaphragm After Chronic Normobaric Hypoxia

Jorge L. Gamboa, Francisco H. Andrade

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Chronic hypoxia reduces aerobic capacity (mitochondrial content) in limb skeletal muscles, and one of the causes seems to be decreased physical activity. Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles, however, may have a different pattern of adaptation as hypoxia increases the work of breathing. Thus, we hypothesized that chronic hypoxia would not reduce mitochondrial content in mouse diaphragm. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were kept in normoxia (FiO2 = 21%, control) or normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 10%, hypoxia) for 1, 2, and 4 wk. Mice were then killed, and the diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles collected for analysis. In the diaphragm, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry showed less intense staining in the hypoxia group. The total content of subunits from the electron transport chain, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was evaluated by Western blot. These proteins decreased by 25–30% after 4 wk of hypoxia ( P < 0.05 vs. control for all comparisons), matching a comparable decrease in diaphragmatic mitochondrial volume density (control 33.6 ± 5.5% vs. hypoxia 26.8 ± 6.7%, P = 0.013). Mitochondrial volume density or protein content did not change in gastrocnemius after hypoxia. Hypoxia decreased the content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARγ cofactor 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in diaphragm but not in gastrocnemius. PGC-1α mRNA levels in diaphragm were also reduced with hypoxia. BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3 (BNIP-3) mRNA levels were upregulated after 1 and 2 wk of hypoxia in diaphragm and gastrocnemius, respectively; BNIP-3 protein content increased only in the diaphragm after 4 wk of hypoxia. Contrary to our hypothesis, these results show that chronic hypoxia decreases mitochondrial content in mouse diaphragm, despite the increase in workload. A combination of reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased mitophagy seems to be responsible for the decrease in mitochondrial content in the mouse diaphragm after hypoxia.