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Novel Prophylactic Vaccine Using A Prime-Boost Method And Hemagglutinating Virus Of Japan-Envelope Against Tuberculosis

Masaji Okada, Yoko Kita, Toshihiro Nakajima, Noriko Kanamaru, Satomi Hashimoto, Tetsuji Nagasawa, Yasufumi Kaneda, Shigeto Yoshida, Yasuko Nishida, Hitoshi Nakatani, Kyoko Takao, Chie Kishigami, Shiho Nishimatsu, Yuki Sekine, Yoshikazu Inoue, David N. McMurray, Mitsunori Sakatani

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Objective.Mycobacterium tuberculosisinfection is a major global threat to human health. The only tuberculosis (TB) vaccine currently available is bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although it has no efficacy in adults. Therefore, the development of a novel vaccine against TB for adults is desired.Method. A novel TB vaccine expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) delivered by the hemagglutinating virus of Japan- (HVJ)- envelope was evaluated against TB infection in mice. Bacterial load reductions and histopathological assessments were used to determine efficacy.Results. Vaccination by BCG prime with IgHSP65+murine IL-12/HVJ-envelope boost resulted in significant protective efficacy (>10, 000-fold versus BCG alone) against TB infection in the lungs of mice. In addition to bacterial loads, significant protective efficacy was demonstrated by histopathological analysis of the lungs. Furthermore, the vaccine increased the number of T cells secreting IFN-γ.Conclusion. This vaccine showed extremely significant protection against TB in a mouse model, consistent with results from a similar paper on cynomolgus monkeys. The results suggest that further development of the vaccine for eventual testing in clinical trials may be warranted.