Aims.The aim of our study was to determine the physiologic impact of NOTES and to compare the transgastric and transcolonic approaches.Methods.Thirty pigs were randomized to transgastric, transcolonic, or laparoscopic peritoneoscopy. Blood was drawn and analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, WBCs, and platelets.Results.Endoscopic closure with an OTSC was successful in all 20 animals. The postoperative course was uneventful in all animals. CRP values rose on day 1 in all animals and slowly declined to baseline levels on day 14 with no differences between the groups (, NS). The levels of TNF-αwere significantly increased in the transcolonic group (); however this difference was already present prior to the procedure and remained unchanged. No differences were observed in IL1-βand IL-6 values. There was a temporary rise of WBC on day 1 and of platelets on day 7 in all groups (, NS).Conclusions.Transgastric, transcolonic, and laparoscopic peritoneoscopy resulted in similar changes in systemic inflammatory markers. Our findings do not support the assumption that NOTES is less invasive than laparoscopy.