Aim. This study was aimed at investigating the effects and molecular mechanisms of physical activity intervention on Parkinson’s disease (PD) and providing theoretical guidance for the prevention and treatment of PD. Methods. Four electronic databases up to December 2019 were searched (PubMed, Springer, Elsevier, and Wiley database), 176 articles were selected. Literature data were analyzed by the logic analysis method. Results. (1) Risk factors of PD include dairy products, pesticides, traumatic brain injury, and obesity. Protective factors include alcohol, tobacco, coffee, black tea, and physical activity. (2) Physical activity can reduce the risk and improve symptoms of PD and the beneficial forms of physical activity, including running, dancing, traditional Chinese martial arts, yoga, and weight training. (3) Different forms of physical activity alleviate the symptoms of PD through different mechanisms, including reducing the accumulation of α-syn protein, inflammation, and oxidative stress, while enhancing BDNF activity, nerve regeneration, and mitochondrial function. Conclusion. Physical activity has a positive impact on the prevention and treatment of PD. Illustrating the molecular mechanism of physical activity-induced protective effect on PD is an urgent need for improving the efficacy of PD therapy regimens in the future.