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Metabolic Syndrome Alters The Cargo Of Mitochondria-Related MicroRNAs In Swine Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles, Impairing Their Capacity To Repair The Stenotic Kidney

Rahele A. Farahani, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Hui Tang, Kyra L. Jordan, Amir Lerman, Lilach O. Lerman, Alfonso Eirin

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Background. Coexisting metabolic syndrome (MetS) and renal artery stenosis (RAS) are linked to poor renal outcomes. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell- (MSC-) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) from lean animals show superior ability to repair the experimental MetS+RAS kidney compared to EVs from MetS pig MSCs. We hypothesized that MetS leads to selective packaging in porcine EVs of microRNAs capable of targeting mitochondrial genes, interfering with their capacity to repair the MetS+RAS kidney. Methods. Five groups of pigs ( n = 7 each) were studied after 16 weeks of diet-induced MetS and RAS (MetS+RAS) and MetS+RAS 4 weeks after a single intrarenal delivery of EVs harvested from allogeneic adipose tissue-derived MSCs isolated from Lean or MetS pigs, and Lean or MetS sham controls. Single-kidney blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were assessed in vivo with multidetector CT, whereas EV microRNA cargo, renal tubular mitochondrial structure and bioenergetics, and renal injury pathways were assessed ex vivo. Results. microRNA sequencing revealed 19 dysregulated microRNAs capable of targeting several mitochondrial genes in MetS-EVs versus Lean-EVs. Lean- and MetS-EVs were detected in the stenotic kidney 4 weeks after administration. However, only MetS-EVs failed to improve renal mitochondrial density, structure, and function or attenuate oxidative stress, tubular injury, and fibrosis. Furthermore, Lean-EVs but not MetS-EVs restored RBF and GFR in MetS+RAS. Conclusion. MetS alters the cargo of mitochondria-related microRNAs in swine MSC-derived EVs, which might impair their capacity to repair the poststenotic kidney in MetS+RAS. These observations may contribute to develop approaches to improve the efficacy of MSC-EVs for patients with MetS.