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Gardnerella Vaginalis And Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Are Effectively Inhibited By Lactobacilli With Probiotic Properties Isolated From Brazilian Cupuaçu (Theobroma Grandiflorum) Fruit

Nathan das Neves Selis, Hellen Braga Martins de Oliveira, Yan Bento dos Anjos, Hiago Ferreira Leão, Beatriz Almeida Sampaio, Thiago Macêdo Lopes Correia, Mariane Mares Reis, Thamara Louisy Santos Brito, Carolline Florentino Almeida, Larissa Silva Carvalho Pena, Laís Ferraz Brito, Roberta Maria Ornelas, Tizá Teles Santos, Guilherme Barreto Campos, Jorge Timenetsky, Mariluze Peixoto Cruz, Andréa Miura da Costa, Regiane Yatsuda, Ana Paula Trovatti Uetanabaro, Lucas Miranda Marques

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In recent years, certain Lactobacillus sp. have emerged in health care as an alternative therapy for various diseases. Based on this, this study is aimed at evaluating in vitro the potential probiotics of five lactobacilli strains isolated from pulp of cupuaçu fruit fermentation against Gardnerella vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Our lactobacilli strains were classified as safe for use in humans, and they were tolerant to heat and pH. Our strains were biofilm producers, while hydrophobicity and autoaggregation varied from 13% to 86% and 13% to 25%, respectively. The coaggregation of lactobacilli used in this study with G. vaginalis and N. gonorrhoeae ranged from 15% to 36% and 32% to 52%, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was present in all tested Lactobacillus strains against both pathogens, and the growth of pathogens in coculture was reduced by the presence of our lactobacilli. Also, all tested lactobacilli reduced the pH of the culture, even in incubation with pathogens after 24 hours. The cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS) of all five lactobacilli demonstrated activity against the two pathogens with a halo presence and CFCS characterization assay together with gas chromatography revealed that lactic acid was the most abundant organic acid in the samples (50% to 62%). Our results demonstrated that the organic acid production profile is strain-specific. This study revealed that cupuaçu is a promising source of microorganisms with probiotic properties against genital pathogens. We demonstrated by in vitro tests that our Lactobacillus strains have probiotic properties. However, the absence of in vivo tests is a limitation of our work due to the need to evaluate the interaction of our lactobacilli with pathogens in the vaginal mucosa. We believe that these findings may be useful in developing a product containing our lactobacilli and their supernatants in order to support with vaginal health.