Acrolein Is Involved In The Synergistic Potential Of Cigarette Smoking– And Betel Quid Chewing–Related Human Oral Cancer
Han-Hsing Tsou, Chih-Hung Hu, Jin-Hui Liu, Chung-Ji Liu, Chien-Hung Lee, T. Liu, Hsiang-Tsui Wang
Published 2019 · Medicine
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Background: Cigarette smoking (CS) and betel quid (BQ) chewing are two known risk factors and have synergistic potential for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Taiwan. The p53 mutation characteristics in OSCC (G to A or G to T mutations) are similar to that of acrolein-induced DNA damage. Acrolein is a major cigarette-related carcinogen that preferentially causes p53 mutations and inhibits DNA repair function in lung cancer. We hypothesize that acrolein is associated with OSCC carcinogenesis. Methods: A total of 97 patients with OSCC and 230 healthy subjects with CS and/or BQ chewing histories were recruited. Slot blot analysis of Acr-dG adducts, an indicator of acrolein-induced DNA damage in buccal DNA, and LC/MS-MS analysis of 3-HPMA levels, urinary Acr metabolites, were performed. Results: Our results showed that the level of Acr-dG adducts in buccal cells was 1.4-fold higher in patients with OSCC than in healthy subjects with CS and/or BQ chewing histories (P < 0.001). In addition, in healthy subjects, CS and BQ chewing were associated with significantly higher levels of 3-HPMA, indicating that CS and BQ chewing promotes acrolein absorption. However, 3-HPMA levels in patients with OSCC were significantly lower than those in healthy subjects, indicating impaired acrolein metabolism. Conclusions: In this study, we provide a novel mechanism by which increased acrolein uptake and impaired metabolism may contribute to the synergistic potential of CS and BQ-induced OSCC. Impact: Elevated acrolein-induced DNA damage (Acr-dG adducts) detected in buccal swabs may serve as an early indicator to identify patients at risk of developing OSCC.
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