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Caracterização De Polimorfismos E Assinaturas De Seleção Em Genótipos De Cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum Spp.) Através De Genotipagem-por-sequenciamento
Leonardo Sartori Menegatto
Published 2017 · Biology
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Characterization of polymorphisms and selection signatures in sugarcane genotypes (Saccharum spp.) by genotyping-by-sequencing Sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.) is a valuable crop for food, fiber and energy production in Brazil, especially to the São Paulo State. With the advent of biotechnology, alternatives to breeding have enticed attention of the scientific community, with genome sequencing and characterization being crucial steps to these advances. Because sugarcane is polyploid, with frequent aneuploidy, it presents difficulties to the application of standard practices in genomics, such that it is advantageous to make use of next generation sequencing alternatives and resources from related species to more effectively elucidate the genome of this grass. Thus, an interesting contribution is the functional characterization of genetic polymorphisms from the Saccharum genus, aiding investigations related to genomics of complex polyploids, developing a resource to be used in the future by breeders. Our goal was to perform this characterization with genotypic data from individuals of the Brazilian Panel of Sugarcane Genotypes, obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), using as reference the previously sequenced sorghum genome. We called the variants (mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms) with FreeBayes and annotated their functions and positions with SnpEff. We used population genetics statistics, such as the allele frequency, the McDonald & Kreitman Test and the pooled heterozygosity, to identify genomic regions potentially involved in evolutionary events. The results showed a loss of variability between bred genotypes in relation to the ancestors, with evidences of selective sweeps, involving regions related to the cellular machinery (such as respiration and photosynthesis) and specific crop traits (especially disease resistance and sucrose biosynthesis). These results support understanding of the genome and breeding efforts in this polyploid grass.
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