Access To Five Nonprimary Health Care Services By Homebound Older Adults: An Integrative Review
Globally, the number of homebound older adults is rising exponentially as the aging population increases. Homebound older adults have complex medical and psychological issues for which many receive home-based primary care services. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify, analyze, and synthesize the existing literature regarding homebound older adults’ need for, use of, and access to five nonprimary health care services. They are dental, nutritional, optical, pharmacy, and psychological services. The integrative review was conducted using a database search of CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing Education, PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, and Cochrane, that was supplemented by a hand search. Little research was found addressing the five nonprimary health care services. Five themes emerged from the 10 studies. They were (1) complex and interrelated health problems require more health care services; (2) perceived unimportance of nonprimary health care services; (3) barriers to use of and access to nonprimary health care services; (4) the impact of socioeconomic and demographical factors on access to services; and (5) the impact of psychological factors (depression and social isolation) on the use and access to health care services. These findings suggest further inequity and barriers to health care services by homebound older adults. Future research is needed with nonprimary health care providers to examine the clinical outcomes and costs of providing the services to homebound older adults.