Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Aflatoxin Exposure In Developing Countries: The Critical Interface Of Agriculture And Health

C. Wild
Published 2007 · Medicine

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
Background Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. These toxins are human liver carcinogens, especially in combination with chronic infection with hepatitis B virus. However, in an agricultural setting, the effects on growth, immune status, and susceptibility to infectious disease in farm animals are also well recognized. These latter effects have been far less explored in human populations. Objectives To review some of the more recent work on aflatoxins where the health outcomes seen in the agricultural setting, including growth impairment and immune suppression, have been investigated in human populations. The paper draws largely on examples from West Africa. The paper also sets out how knowledge gained about aflatoxins in the agricultural setting can be used to design intervention studies in human populations. Methods A review of the relevant literature. Results Human exposure to aflatoxins begins early in life, and recent studies in West Africa have demonstrated an association between exposure and growth faltering, particularly stunting, in young children. At present the underlying mechanisms for the latter effects are unknown but may include impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Simple postharvest intervention strategies were successful in reducing aflatoxin exposure in a subsistence farm setting, providing a rationale for prevention of aflatoxin-related disease. Conclusions There are potential benefits to public health from intervention strategies combining expertise in the agricultural and health settings to address the aflatoxin problem.
This paper references
10.1203/01.PDR.0000076666.16021.5E
Chronic T Cell-Mediated Enteropathy in Rural West African Children: Relationship with Nutritional Status and Small Bowel Function
D. Campbell (2003)
10.1093/AJCN/80.5.1106
Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions.
J. H. Williams (2004)
Case-control study of an acute aflatoxicosis
E Azziz-Baumgartner (2004)
10.1289/ehp.7998
Aflatoxin Contamination of Commercial Maize Products during an Outbreak of Acute Aflatoxicosis in Eastern and Central Kenya
L. Lewis (2005)
10.1124/dmd.105.008672
THE HUMAN INTESTINAL CYTOCHROME P450 “PIE”
M. Paine (2006)
10.1152/AJPCELL.00007.2004
Ochratoxin A increases permeability through tight junctions by removal of specific claudin isoforms.
J. McLaughlin (2004)
10.1017/S0029665100000173
The impact of infection and nutrition on gut function and growth in childhood.
P. Lunn (2000)
10.1289/ehp.8384
Case–Control Study of an Acute Aflatoxicosis Outbreak, Kenya, 2004
E. Azziz-Baumgartner (2005)
10.1093/MUTAGE/17.6.471
The toxicology of aflatoxins as a basis for public health decisions.
C. Wild (2002)
10.1016/0140-6736(91)93295-K
In-utero exposure to aflatoxin in West Africa
C. Wild (1991)
10.1093/INTIMM/DXH262
Aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels and cellular immune status in Ghanaians.
Y. Jiang (2005)
10.1093/AJCN/80.1.193
Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles.
L. Caulfield (2004)
10.1097/00005176-200408000-00005
Intestinal Inflammation Measured by Fecal Neopterin in Gambian Children With Enteropathy: Association With Growth Failure, Giardia lamblia, and Intestinal Permeability
D. Campbell (2004)
10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71877-8
WHO estimates of the causes of death in children
J. Bryce (2005)
10.1136/bmj.285.6345.843
Aflatoxins and kwashiorkor: a study in Sudanese children.
R. G. Hendrickse (1982)
10.1079/bjnbjn2002652
Growth retardation and stunting of children in developing countries.
P. Lunn (2002)
10.1046/j.1365-3156.2000.00664.x
Hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin biomarker levels in Gambian children
P. C. Turner (2000)
10.1016/S0923-2508(99)80042-4
Secondary metabolites of Aspergillus exert immunobiological effects on human monocytes.
F. Rossano (1999)
10.1016/J.VETIMM.2005.08.010
The effects of mycotoxins, fungal food contaminants, on the intestinal epithelial cell-derived innate immune response.
S. Bouhet (2005)
10.1097/00005176-199703000-00005
Lactose maldigestion in breast-feeding Gambian infants.
C. Northrop-Clewes (1997)
10.1136/bmj.325.7354.20
Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Benin and Togo: cross sectional study
Y. Gong (2002)
10.1002/HEP.510290441
Enhanced duck hepatitis B virus gene expression following aflatoxin B exposure
L. Barraud (1999)
10.1093/IJE/DYG109
Determinants of aflatoxin exposure in young children from Benin and Togo, West Africa: the critical role of weaning.
Y. Gong (2003)
10.1289/ehp.6954
Postweaning Exposure to Aflatoxin Results in Impaired Child Growth: A Longitudinal Study in Benin, West Africa
Y. Gong (2004)
10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13779-8
Where and why are 10 million children dying every year?
R. Black (2003)
Aflatoxin, liver enzymes, and hepatitis B virus infection in Gambian children.
C. Wild (1993)
10.1016/0923-2508(96)84713-9
Immunobiological activities of mould products: functional impairment of human monocytes exposed to aflatoxin B1.
V. Cusumano (1996)
10.4269/AJTMH.2004.71.55
Undernutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than five years old.
L. Caulfield (2004)
10.1289/EHP.5753
Modification of immune function through exposure to dietary aflatoxin in Gambian children.
P. C. Turner (2003)
10.2527/2002.8051250X
Changes in performance, blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune responses in weanling piglets exposed to low doses of aflatoxin.
D. Marin (2002)
10.3382/PS.0711136
Toxicological evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens.
E. E. Smith (1992)
Aflatoxin and human disease.
D. Denning (1987)
10.1093/JN/133.5.1332
Growth faltering in rural Gambian infants is associated with impaired small intestinal barrier function, leading to endotoxemia and systemic inflammation.
D. Campbell (2003)
10.1289/EHP.9302
Workgroup Report: Public Health Strategies for Reducing Aflatoxin Exposure in Developing Countries
H. Strosnider (2006)
10.1007/BF00195101
Toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, alone and in combination, on chicken embryos
T. Edrington (1995)
Small bowel review: Normal physiology, part 1.
A. Thomson (2003)
10.1002/NT.2620030103
Prevalence of exposure to aflatoxin and hepatitis B and C viruses in Guinea, West Africa.
M. S. Diallo (1995)
10.1016/B978-0-12-228255-3.50016-7
11 – Epidemiology of Aflatoxin-Related Disease
A. J. Hall (1993)
10.1016/0140-6736(91)91772-M
Intestinal permeability, mucosal injury, and growth faltering in Gambian infants
P. Lunn (1991)
10.1023/A:1012794505897
REVIEW: Small Bowel Review: Normal Physiology Part 1
A. Thomson (2004)
10.1021/ES035353N
Mycotoxin risk assessment for the purpose of setting international regulatory standards.
F. Wu (2004)
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0923
Absence of TP53 Codon 249 Mutations in Young Guinean Children with High Aflatoxin Exposure
P. C. Turner (2005)
Nutrient requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation: The Keneba experience
A. Prentice (1993)
10.1016/S1383-5742(00)00027-2
Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries.
C. Wild (2000)
10.1016/0035-9203(92)90253-9
Aflatoxin exposure, malaria and hepatitis B infection in rural Gambian children.
S. Allen (1992)
10.1079/NRR200368
The impact of low concentrations of aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol or fumonisin in diets on growing pigs and poultry.
Y. Dersjant-Li (2003)
10.1016/S1043-2760(02)00689-6
Fetal programming of coronary heart disease
D. Barker (2002)
10.1081/TXR-200027844
Worldwide Regulations on Aflatoxins—The Situation in 2002
H. V. van Egmond (2004)
10.1079/BJN2002697
Age-related association of small intestinal mucosal enteropathy with nutritional status in rural Gambian children.
D. Campbell (2002)
Calorie intake per capita
CP Wild
10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66661-5
Reduction in exposure to carcinogenic aflatoxins by postharvest intervention measures in west Africa: a community-based intervention study
P. Turner (2005)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000401)86:1<1::AID-IJC1>3.0.CO;2-I
Environmental and genetic determinants of aflatoxin–albumin adducts in The Gambia
C. Wild (2000)



This paper is referenced by
10.1002/jbt.21787
Coexistence of Aflatoxicosis with Protein Malnutrition Worsens Hepatic Oxidative Damage in Rats
O. A. Rotimi (2016)
10.1177/15648265070282S201
Agriculture and Health: Overview, Themes, and Moving Forward
C. Hawkes (2007)
Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Exposure: International Survey and Enterosorption Mitigation Strategy in Humans
S. Elmore (2016)
10.1093/jn/nxz122
Relatively Low Maternal Aflatoxin Exposure Is Associated with Small-for-Gestational-Age but Not with Other Birth Outcomes in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study of Nepalese Infants.
Johanna Y. Andrews-Trevino (2019)
10.14334/wartazoa.v26i3.1393
Mycotoxin Contamination in the Food Chain
E. Martindah (2017)
10.1097/QAI.0000000000000255
Challenges in the Detection, Prevention, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Malignancies in Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Africa
C. Adebamowo (2014)
Beyond a conceptual framework : an applied method to assess the potential impact of multi-sectoral approaches on the reduction of child stunting in Yemen (2013-2014)
Patrizia Fracassi (2017)
10.31080/asnh.2020.04.prevalence-perception-and-participatory-management-of-aflatoxins-in-groundnut-
Prevalence, Perception and Participatory Management of Aflatoxins in Groundnut with Emphasis on Northern Ghana
I. Sugri (2020)
10.17508/cjfst.2019.11.2.09
Climate change and mycotoxins: The African experience
Stephen O. Fapohunda (2019)
10.1016/j.tifs.2020.03.042
The role of conventional plant breeding in ensuring safe levels of naturally occurring toxins in food crops
Natalie Kaiser (2020)
10.1016/j.canlet.2009.02.053
A model of interaction: aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention.
C. Wild (2009)
10.1016/J.CROPRO.2012.07.004
Occurrence and distribution of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L) and population density of Aflatoxigenic Aspergilli in Malawi
E. Monyo (2012)
Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxin in Different Egusi Types found in Nigeria
(2019)
10.1146/ANNUREV.PUBLHEALTH.29.020907.090859
Protective interventions to prevent aflatoxin-induced carcinogenesis in developing countries.
J. Groopman (2008)
Prevalence and distribution of a fl atoxin contamination in groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L . ) in Mali , West Africa
F. Waliyar (2015)
10.1186/s40813-016-0041-2
Impact of two mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and fumonisin on pig intestinal health
Alix Pierron (2016)
10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00433
Aflatoxin B1 Suppressed T-Cell Response to Anti-pig-CD3 Monoclonal Antibody Stimulation in Primary Porcine Splenocytes: A Role for the Extracellular Regulated Protein Kinase (ERK1/2) MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Shu Xian Hao (2015)
10.1080/23311932.2017.1312046
Integrated peanut aflatoxin management for increase income and nutrition in Northern Ghana
Issah Sugri (2017)
MYCOFLORA OF PISTACHIO AND PEANUT KERNELS FROM SARI, IRAN
M. Hedayati (2010)
10.3920/WMJ2010.1208
Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from animal environment with in vitro aflatoxin B1 binding ability and anti-pathogenic bacterial influence
M. R. Armando (2011)
10.7508/NMJ.2015.04.007
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles: The reasons for and against Aspergillus parasiticus
M. Moazeni (2014)
10.1016/j.cbpc.2008.12.002
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and ultra-low dose cancer studies.
D. E. Williams (2009)
10.1128/mBio.00963-20
The Frequency of Sex: Population Genomics Reveals Differences in Recombination and Population Structure of the Aflatoxin-Producing Fungus Aspergillus flavus
M. Drott (2020)
Control of xerophilic mould in traditional Egyptian salted fish, "Molouha".
Supervisor Ahmed Ali Ismail (2013)
Occurrence of aflatoxin in Colocynthis citrullus L. (egusi) kernels in Southwestern Nigeria
Obani (2019)
Aflatoxin Contamination of Foods in Mozambique: Occurrence, Public Health Implications and Challenges
A. Romão (2019)
10.13103/JFHS.2017.32.4.267
A Monitoring of Aflatoxins in Commercial Herbs for Food and Medicine
Sung-Dan Kim (2017)
10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2011.12.014
Mycotoxin contamination of the feed supply chain: Implications for animal productivity and feed security
W. Bryden (2012)
10.17226/13296
Ensuring Safe Foods and Medical Products Through Stronger Regulatory Systems Abroad
J. Riviere (2013)
10.1596/28125
AgRICUlTURAl DevelopmeNT UNDeR A CHANgINg ClImATe: opportunities and Challenges for Adaptation
J. Padgham (2009)
Development and validation of portion size food photographs to determine maize intake of young children in rural Eastern Cape Province
Alpheus Rasekhala (2016)
10.1128/CMR.00055-08
Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus in Invasive Aspergillosis
Taylor R T Dagenais (2009)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar