Targeted Inactivation Of Murine Band 3 (AE1) Gene Produces A Hypercoagulable State Causing Widespread Thrombosis In Vivo
Only 5% to 10% of band 3 null mice survive the neonatal period. To determine the cause of death, 3 adult and 11 newborn band 3 null mice were submitted for histopathologic examination. All but 1 pup showed evidence of thrombosis including: (1) large thrombotic lesions in the heart, which were partially organized, calcified in some fields, and endothelialized, indicating a process that developed premortem (3 of 3 adults and 6 of 11 pups). (2) Subcapsular necrotic areas in the liver suggestive of premortem ischemic events caused by arteriolar occlusions (8 of 11 pups). (3) Large vein thrombi (4 of 11 pups). To investigate the etiology of this hypercoagulable state, we have used the Russell’s viper venom test (RVV) to show that red blood cells (RBCs) from band 3 null mice significantly shorten the RVV clotting time of normal plasma in a dose-dependent fashion, whereas RBCs from normal mice have no effect, suggesting that the membrane of band 3 null RBCs provides a suitable surface for activation of the prothrombinase complex. Using flow cytometry, we have examined the phosphatidylserine (PS)-specific binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-annexin V to normal and band 3 null RBCs. A subpopulation of cells (3% to 5% of RBCs) with increased FITC-annexin V binding was detected in band 3 null RBCs as compared with normal RBCs. Furthermore, the entire cell population of band 3 null RBCs shows a measurable increase in the mean fluorescence intensity, suggesting that band 3 null RBCs may have increased PS exposure on the outer membrane leaflet. These findings are further supported by direct fluorescence microscopy of normal and band 3 null RBCs labeled with FITC-annexin V. Based on these observations, we postulate that the high mortality of band 3 null mice may be related to a hypercoagulable state, which appears to originate from changes in the phospholipid composition of the membrane leading to PS exposure on the outer leaflet.
© 1998 by The American Society of Hematology.