Inconsistent Descriptions Of Lumbar Multifidus Morphology: A Scoping Review
Anke Hofste, Remko Soer, Hermie J Hermens, Heiko Wagner, Frits G. J. Oosterveld, André P. Wolff, Gerbrand J. Groen
Published 2020 · Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
Background Lumbar multifidus (LM) is regarded as the major stabilizing muscle of the spine. The effects of exercise therapy in low back pain (LBP) are attributed to this muscle. A current literature review is warranted, however, given the complexity of LM morphology and the inconsistency of anatomical descriptions in the literature. Methods Scoping review of studies on LM morphology including major anatomy atlases. All relevant studies were searched in PubMed (Medline) and EMBASE until June 2019. Anatomy atlases were retrieved from multiple university libraries and online. All studies and atlases were screened for the following LM parameters: location, imaging methods, spine levels, muscle trajectory, muscle thickness, cross-sectional area, and diameter. The quality of the studies and atlases was also assessed using a five-item evaluation system. Results In all, 303 studies and 19 anatomy atlases were included in this review. In most studies, LM morphology was determined by MRI, ultrasound imaging, or drawings – particularly for levels L4–S1. In 153 studies, LM is described as a superficial muscle only, in 72 studies as a deep muscle only, and in 35 studies as both superficial and deep. Anatomy atlases predominantly depict LM as a deep muscle covered by the erector spinae and thoracolumbar fascia. About 42% of the studies had high quality scores, with 39% having moderate scores and 19% having low scores. The quality of figures in anatomy atlases was ranked as high in one atlas, moderate in 15 atlases, and low in 3 atlases. Discussion Anatomical studies of LM exhibit inconsistent findings, describing its location as superficial (50%), deep (25%), or both (12%). This is in sharp contrast to anatomy atlases, which depict LM predominantly as deep muscle. Within the limitations of the self-developed quality-assessment tool, high-quality scores were identified in a majority of studies (42%), but in only one anatomy atlas. Conclusions We identified a lack of standardization in the depiction and description of LM morphology. This could affect the precise understanding of its role in background and therapy in LBP patients. Standardization of research methodology on LM morphology is recommended. Anatomy atlases should be updated on LM morphology.
This paper references
Quantitative MRI comparison of multifidus muscle degeneration in thoracolumbar fractures treated with open and minimally invasive approach
F Gilbert (2018)
The Variation in the Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation in an Adult Asian Population and Its Relationship with the Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus and Erector Spinae
Kazuhiro Sugawara (2016)
CT and MRI Determination of Intermuscular Space within Lumbar Paraspinal Muscles at Different Intervertebral Disc Levels
Xuefei Deng (2015)
Changes in muscle thickness after exercise and biofeedback in people with low back pain.
Shandi L Partner (2014)
Reliability of Ultrasound Imaging Measures of Transverse Abdominis and Lumbar Multifidus in Various Positions.
L Colby Mangum (2016)
Swiss ball enhances lumbar multifidus activity in chronic low back pain.
Ian R Scott (2015)
The effect of chronic low back pain on size and contraction of the lumbar multifidus muscle.
Tracy L Wallwork (2009)
The content of a training package in diagnostic ultrasound for physiotherapists
Sharmaine Mckiernan (2015)
A Longitudinal Study of Trunk Muscle Properties and Severity of Thoracic Kyphosis in Women and Men: The Framingham Study
Amanda L. Lorbergs (2019)
Asymmetric Atrophy of Paraspinal Muscles in Patients With Chronic Unilateral Lumbar Radiculopathy
Jinmann Chon (2017)
The Association of Nutritional Status and Gender with Cross-Sectional Area of the Multifidus Muscle in Establishing Normative Data
Todd K. Watson (2008)
Lumbar muscle fiber size and type distribution in normal subjects
Jyrki Rantanen (2005)
Differentiation between deep and superficial fibers of the lumbar multifidus by magnetic resonance imaging
Nele Dickx (2009)
The effect of high-intensity resistance exercise on lumbar musculature in patients with low back pain: a preliminary study
David B. Berry (2019)
Verification of an optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation for activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles.
Seung Ok Baek (2014)
Musculoskeletal support of lumbar spine stability.
Heiko Wagner (2005)
Age and side-related morphometric MRI evaluation of trunk muscles in people without back pain.
Stéphanie Valentin (2015)
Lumbar paraspinal muscle fat infiltration is independently associated with sex, age, and inter-vertebral disc degeneration in symptomatic patients
Julio Urrutia (2018)
The Location of Multifidus Atrophy in Patients With a Single Level, Unilateral Lumbar Radiculopathy
Jung-Il Kang (2013)
Reliability of 2 ultrasonic imaging analysis methods in quantifying lumbar multifidus thickness.
Arnold Yu Lok Wong (2013)
Three-dimensional study of the musculotendinous architecture of lumbar multifidus and its functional implications.
Alessandro L Rosatelli (2008)
Can diffusion tensor imaging and tractography represent cross‐sectional area of lumbar multifidus in patients with LUMBAR spine disease?
Jeehae Oh (2018)
Fatty degeneration of multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain and in asymptomatic volunteers: quantification with chemical shift magnetic resonance imaging
Bahar Yanık (2012)
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations
Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the lumbar multifidus muscle
JA Hides (1995)
The effect of flexi-bar exercise with vibration on trunk muscle thickness and balance in university students in their twenties
Seong-Jin Lee (2016)
Sectional anatomy by MRI and CT
Georges Y. El-Khoury (2007)
An update of stabilisation exercises for low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis
Benjamin E Smith (2014)
Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasonography to Measure Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Dimensions
N Nabavi (2014)
The Effects of Dynamic Isolated Lumbar Extensor Training on Lumbar Multifidus Functional Cross-Sectional Area and Functional Status of Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain
Martin J. Willemink (2012)
Prometheus: anatomische atlas
M Schünke (2010)
Morphology versus function: the relationship between lumbar multifidus intramuscular adipose tissue and muscle function among patients with low back pain.
Edward C Le Cara (2014)
Ultrasound measurements of lumbar multifidus and abdominal muscle size in firefighters.
James L. Nuzzo (2014)
Image changes of paraspinal muscles and clinical correlations in patients with unilateral lumbar spinal stenosis
Yanyu Chen (2013)
The Effect of Paravertebral Muscle on the Maintenance of Upright Posture in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity.
Tomohiro Banno (2019)
The effect of motor control exercise versus general exercise on lumbar local stabilizing muscles thickness: Randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic low back pain
Asghar Akbari (2008)
Abnormal change of paravertebral muscle in adult degenerative scoliosis and its association with bony structural parameters
Dongxiao Xie (2019)
Muscle fibre direction of longissimus, iliocostalis and multifidus: landmark-derived reference lines.
J L De Foa (1989)
The fatty degeneration of lumbar paraspinal muscles on computed tomography scan according to age and disc level.
Shin Heon Lee (2017)
Ultrasonographic Measurements of Paraspinal Muscle Thickness in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Comparison and Reliability Study
Karina A. Zapata (2015)
The effect of unilateral muscle pain on recruitment of the lumbar multifidus during automatic contraction. An experimental pain study.
Nele Dickx (2010)
Comparison of the Efficacy of Different Long-term Interventions on Chronic Low Back Pain Using the Cross-sectional Area of the Multifidus Muscle and the Thickness of the Transversus Abdominis Muscle as Evaluation Indicators
Qiuchen Huang (2014)
Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain.
Julie A. Hides (2008)
Beneficial Intervertebral Disc and Muscle Adaptations in High-Volume Road Cyclists
Daniel L. Belavy (2018)
Architectural analysis and intraoperative measurements demonstrate the unique design of the multifidus muscle for lumbar spine stability.
Samuel R. Ward (2009)
Correlation between the MRI changes in the lumbar multifidus muscles and leg pain.
Deiary F. Kader (2000)
Magnetic resonance elastography of the lumbar back muscles: A preliminary study.
Maud Creze (2018)
What Characterizes People Who Have an Unclear Classification Using a Treatment-Based Classification Algorithm for Low Back Pain? A Cross-Sectional Study
Tasha R Stanton (2012)
Comparative study of Mm. Multifidi in lumbar and thoracic spine.
Thais Weber de Alencar Bojadsen (2000)
Shear wave elastography investigation of multifidus stiffness in individuals with low back pain.
Carlos Enrique Espinoza Murillo (2019)
Clinical prediction for success of interventions for managing low back pain.
Jeffrey J. Hebert (2008)
Inter-session reliability of the measurement of the deep and superficial layer of lumbar multifidus in young asymptomatic people and patients with low back pain using ultrasonography.
I-Shan Liu (2013)
The Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging of the Cross-sectional Area of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscles in the PNF Pattern
Qiuchen Huang (2014)
Lumbar Spine Paraspinal Muscle and Intervertebral Disc Height Changes in Astronauts After Long-Duration Spaceflight on the International Space Station
Douglas G. Chang (2016)
Feasibility, accuracy and safety of a percutaneous fine‐needle biopsy technique to obtain qualitative muscle samples of the lumbar multifidus and erector spinae muscle in persons with low back pain
Anouk Agten (2018)
Radiology anatomy atlas viewer: Bearboat SP
R Livingston (2011)
Comparison of pedicle fixation by the Wiltse approach and the conventional posterior open approach for thoracolumbar fractures, using MRI, histological and electrophysiological analyses of the multifidus muscle
Liu Jun-hui (2017)
Effects of the trunk position on muscle stiffness that reflects elongation of the lumbar erector spinae and multifidus muscles: an ultrasonic shear wave elastography study
Mitsuhiro Masaki (2019)
The significance of multifidus atrophy after successful radiofrequency neurotomy for low back pain.
Paul Dreyfuss (2009)
Lumbar multifidus muscle changes in unilateral lumbar disc herniation using magnetic resonance imaging
Naime Altınkaya (2015)
Relationships between vitamin D and paraspinal muscle: human data and experimental rat model analysis.
Woo-Seok Bang (2018)
Lumbar multifidus muscle size does not differ whether ultrasound imaging is performed in prone or side lying.
Yvonne Coldron (2003)
Essential Clinical Anatomy
Keith L. Moore (1995)
Anatomical study of the paraspinal approach to the lumbar spine
Raphäel Vialle (2004)
Relationship Between Low Back Pain and Lumbar Multifidus Size at Different Postures
Sung Koo Lee (2006)
Reliability of Ultrasound Imaging for the Assessment of Lumbar Multifidi Thickness in Older Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain
Jaclyn Megan Sions (2015)
Assessment of association between low back pain and paraspinal muscle atrophy using opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging: a populationbased study among young adults
N Paalanne (1961)
Prospective Study of Long-term Effect between Multifidus Muscle Bundle and Conventional Open Approach in One-level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion.
Hai-feng Zhu (2018)
Association between paraspinal muscle morphology, clinical symptoms and functional status in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis
Maryse Fortin (2017)
Multiplying linear dimension techniques may predict the cross-sectional area of multifidus muscle at all levels of lumbar spine.
Maryamsadat Larrie-Baghal (2012)
Changes in Shear Modulus of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle during Different Body Positions.
Seyedali Sadeghi (2019)
Comparison of multifidus muscle atrophy after posterior lumbar interbody fusion with conventional and cortical bone trajectory
Che-Wei Hung (2016)
Fatty replacement of lower paraspinal muscles: normal and neuromuscular disorders.
H. Hadar (1983)
Effect of motor control training on muscle size and football games missed from injury.
Julie A. Hides (2012)
Measurement of lumbar multifidus muscle contraction with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.
Kyle B. Kiesel (2007)
Testing a tool for assessing the risk of bias for nonrandomized studies showed moderate reliability and promising validity.
Soo Young Kim (2013)
Age and sex-based distribution of lumbar multifidus muscle atrophy and coexistence of disc hernia: an MRI study of 2028 patients.
Elif Evrim Ekin (2016)
Muscle Atrophy and Changes in Spinal Morphology: Is the Lumbar Spine Vulnerable After Prolonged Bed-Rest?
Daniel L. Belavy (2011)
Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework
Hilary Arksey (2005)
Negative Effects of Long-duration Spaceflight on Paraspinal Muscle Morphology.
Katelyn Burkhart (2019)
Activations of Deep Lumbar Stabilizing Muscles by Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Lumbar Paraspinal Regions
Seung Ok Baek (2014)
Does pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar multifidus muscle predict clinical outcomes following lumbar spinal decompression for symptomatic spinal stenosis?
Mario G. T. Zotti (2017)
A Comparison of the Abdominal and Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Size in Patients With Lumbar Spondylolisthesis and Healthy Patients at Rest and During Contraction Using Ultrasonography
Ailin Shadani (2018)
Organization of the fascia and aponeurosis in the lumbar paraspinal compartment
Maud Creze (2018)
Andrés Anaya (2013)
The evaluation of lumbar multifidus muscle function via palpation: reliability and validity of a new clinical test.
Jeffrey J. Hebert (2015)
Exploring Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Intensity Effects on Multifidus Muscle Activity in Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain: An Ultrasound Imaging–Informed Investigation
Jaclyn Megan Sions (2019)
Comparative study of the paraspinal muscles after OVF between the insufficient union and sufficient union using MRI
Marina Katsu (2018)
The Effects of an 8-Week Stabilization Exercise Program on Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Thickness and Activation as Measured With Ultrasound Imaging in Patients With Low Back Pain: An Exploratory Study.
Christian Larivière (2018)
Feasibility assessment of shear wave elastography to lumbar back muscles: A Radioanatomic Study.
Maud Creze (2017)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electromyography to Measure Lumbar Back Muscle Activity
Nele Dickx (2010)
Severe Lumbar Disability Is Associated With Decreased Psoas Cross-Sectional Area in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis
Scott C. Wagner (2018)
MRI of paraspinal muscles in lumbar degenerative kyphosis patients and control patients with chronic low back pain.
C H Kang (2007)
Ultrasonography of multifidus muscle morphology and function in ice hockey players with and without low back pain.
Maryse Fortin (2019)
The Effects of Stabilization and Mckenzie Exercises on Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Thickness, Pain, and Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial in NonSpecific Chronic Low Back Pain
Mohammad Hosseinifar (2013)
Multifidus muscle size in adolescents with and without back pain using ultrasonography.
Nahid Rahmani (2018)
From the international space station to the clinic: how prolonged unloading may disrupt lumbar spine stability.
Jeannie Bailey (2018)
Vitamin D supplements for trunk muscle morphology in older adults: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial
William A Cuellar (2019)
The Ligamento‐Muscular Stabilizing System of the Spine
Moshe Solomonow (1998)
Subgrouping low back pain: A comparison of the STarT Back Tool with the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire
Jonathan C. Hill (2010)
Comparison between muscle activation measured by electromyography and muscle thickness measured using ultrasonography for effective muscle assessment.
Chang-Yong Kim (2014)
The effect of averaging multiple trials on measurement error during ultrasound imaging of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles in individuals with low back pain.
Shane Koppenhaver (2009)
The Intervention Effects of Different Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain as Assessed by the Cross-sectional Area of the Multifidus Muscle
Qiuchen Huang (2013)
The Effects of Modified Wall Squat Exercises on Average Adults’ Deep Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Lumbar Stability
Misuk Cho (2013)
The effect of low back pain on trunk muscle size/function and hip strength in elite football (soccer) players
Julie A. Hides (2016)
Lower Trunk Muscle Thickness Is Associated With Pain in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.
Ronaldo Valdir Briani (2019)
Paraspinal muscle changes of unilateral multilevel minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion
Jae-Sung Yoo (2014)
Increased intramuscular fatty infiltration without differences in lumbar muscle cross-sectional area during remission of unilateral recurrent low back pain.
Roseline D'hooge (2012)
Radiology anatomy atlas viewer
R. Livingston (2011)
Assessment of trunk muscle density using CT and its association with degenerative disc and facet joint disease of the lumbar spine
Ronnie Sebro (2016)
Association between history and physical examination factors and change in lumbar multifidus muscle thickness after spinal manipulation in patients with low back pain.
Shane Koppenhaver (2012)
Predicting football injuries using size and ratio of the multifidus and quadratus lumborum muscles
Julie A. Hides (2017)
Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles
Tome Ikezoe (2011)
Criterion Validity of Ultrasound Imaging: Assessment of Multifidi Cross-Sectional Area in Older Adults With and Without Chronic Low Back Pain
Jaclyn Megan Sions (2017)
Ultrasound transducer shape has no effect on measurements of lumbar multifidus muscle size.
Peter R Worsley (2012)
Muscle quality characteristics of muscles in the thigh, upper arm and lower back in elderly men and women
Akito Yoshiko (2018)
Multifidus Muscle Size and Symmetry in Ballroom Dancers with and without Low Back Pain.
Alyssa Smyers Evanson (2018)
Changes in intervertebral disc morphology persist 5 mo after 21-day bed rest.
Daniel L. Belavy (2011)
Clinically Oriented Anatomy
Keith L. Moore (1985)
The use of electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate a core strengthening exercise programme.
Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska (2018)
Trunk exercise training improves muscle size, strength, and function in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.
Behnaz Shahtahmassebi (2019)
Acute traumatic thoracolumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome: case report.
Katharine D. Harper (2018)
Reduced nondominant lumbar multifidi cross‐sectional area is a precursor of low back injury in cricket fast bowlers
Benita Olivier (2017)
Focal atrophy of the multifidus muscle in lumbosacral radiculopathy.
William W. Campbell (1998)
Volumetric Muscle Measurements Indicate Significant Muscle Degeneration in Single-Level Disc Herniation Patients.
Kaan Yaltırık (2018)
Analysis of intra and extramyocellular lipids in the multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain using MR spectroscopy.
Hiroyuki Takashima (2018)
Posture-related stiffness mapping of paraspinal muscles.
Maud Creze (2019)
Is a single-level measurement of paraspinal muscle fat infiltration and cross-sectional area representative of the entire lumbar spine?
Julio Urrutia (2018)
Muscle fiber type distribution in multifidus muscle in cases of lumbar disc herniation.
Snježana Bajek (2000)
Multifidus muscle changes and clinical effects of one-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion: minimally invasive procedure versus conventional open approach
Shunwu Fan (2009)
Lumbar Spine Stability for Subjects With and Without Low Back Pain During One-Leg Standing Test
Paul S Sung (2010)
Different ways to balance the spine in sitting: Muscle activity in specific postures differs between individuals with and without a history of back pain in sitting
Andrew P Claus (2018)
The relationship of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus clinical muscle tests in patients with chronic low back pain.
Julie A. Hides (2011)
Quantification of muscle fat in patients with low back pain: comparison of multi-echo MR imaging with single-voxel MR spectroscopy.
Michael A. Fischer (2013)
Effects of Modic Type 1 Changes in the Vertebrae on Low Back Pain.
Hakan Hanımoǧlu (2019)
Worksite back and core exercise in firefighters: Effect on development of lumbar multifidus muscle size.
John M. Mayer (2015)
Effect of autologous platelet leukocyte rich plasma injections on atrophied lumbar multifidus muscle in low back pain patients with monosegmental degenerative disc disease
Mohamed Mahmoud Ahmed Hussein (2016)
Asymmetric Atrophy of Multifidus Muscle in Patients With Unilateral Lumbosacral Radiculopathy
Jung Keun Hyun (2007)
Deep and Superficial Fibers of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Are Differentially Active During Voluntary Arm Movements
G. Lorimer Moseley (2002)
Comparison of Classification-Based Physical Therapy With Therapy Based on Clinical Practice Guidelines for Patients with Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Julie M Fritz (2003)
Histochemistry and Morphology of the Multifidus Muscle in Lumbar Disc Herniation: Comparative Study Between Diseased and Normal Sides
Wei-guo Zhao (2000)
Changes in the cross-sectional area of multifidus and psoas in unilateral sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation.
Wook Kim (2011)
Rehabilitative ultrasound measurement of select trunk muscle activation during induced pain.
Kyle B. Kiesel (2008)
Effect of Whole Body Horizontal Vibration Exercise in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients: Vertical Versus Horizontal Vibration Exercise
Heejae Kim (2018)
Effects of physical therapy agents on pain, disability, quality of life, and lumbar paravertebral muscle stiffness via elastography in patients with chronic low back pain.
Ozan Volkan Yurdakul (2019)
Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging for Measurement of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle in Normal Young Adults
Julie A. Hides (1992)
Effects of 12-week lumbar stabilization exercise and sling exercise on lumbosacral region angle, lumbar muscle strength, and pain scale of patients with chronic low back pain
Kwang-Jun Ko (2018)
Age-related structural and functional changes of low back muscles
Patrick Hiepe (2015)
The relationship between cross-sectional area of multifidus muscle and disability index in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.
Fereshteh Rezazadeh (2019)
Effects of Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and a High-Load Lifting Exercise on Lumbar Multifidus Thickness: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Lars Berglund (2017)
The Evaluation of Chronic Low Back Pain by Determining the Ratio of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Cross-sectional Areas of the Unaffected and Affected Sides
Qiuchen Huang (2014)
Postoperative Changes in Paraspinal Muscle Volume: Comparison between Paramedian Interfascial and Midline Approaches for Lumbar Fusion
Seung Jae Hyun (2007)
Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice
Susan Standring (2015)
Stability increase of the lumbar spine with different muscle groups: a biomechanical in vitro study.
Ian A. F. Stokes (1995)
Multifidus innervation and muscle assessment post-spinal surgery
Derek T Cawley (2013)
The Relationship of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Morphology to Previous, Current, and Future Low Back Pain: A 9-Year Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study
Jeffrey J. Hebert (2014)
Association between changes in abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness and clinical improvement after spinal manipulation.
Shane L. Koppenhaver (2011)
Preliminary development of a clinical prediction rule for determining which patients with low back pain will respond to a stabilization exercise program.
Gregory Evan Hicks (2005)
Morphology of the lumbar multifidus muscle in lumbar disc herniation at different durations and at different ages
Zhi-Neng Chen (2018)
Paraspinal muscles density: a marker for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis?
Janan Abbas (2016)
Reliability of measuring the fat content of the lumbar vertebral marrow and paraspinal muscles using MRI mDIXON-Quant sequence.
Yong Zhang (2018)
MR-defined fat infiltration of the lumbar paravertebral muscles differs between non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and established ankylosing spondylitis
Ozgur Akgul (2013)
Low impact weight-bearing exercise in an upright posture increases the activation of two key local muscles of the lumbo-pelvic region
Dorothée Debuse (2013)
Association of walking speed with sagittal spinal alignment, muscle thickness, and echo intensity of lumbar back muscles in middle-aged and elderly women
Mitsuhiro Masaki (2015)
Measuring ultrasound images of abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscles in older adults: A reliability study.
Anitra Wilson (2016)
Reliability of diagnostic ultrasound in measuring the multifidus muscle
Eirik Johan Skeie (2015)
Reliability and Precision of Sonography of the Lumbar Multifidus and Transversus Abdominis During Dynamic Activities
Karl C. Gibbon (2017)
Lumbar muscle structure and function in chronic versus recurrent low back pain: a cross-sectional study.
Dorien Goubert (2017)
Paraspinal muscle morphology and composition: a 15-yr longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.
Maryse Fortin (2014)
New uses and refinements of the paraspinal approach to the lumbar spine.
Leon L. Wiltse (1988)
A novel surgical approach to the lumbar spine involving hemilateral split-off of the spinous process to preserve the multifidus muscle: technical note.
Kenichi Chatani (2016)
Exercise and Transversus Abdominis Muscle Atrophy after 60-d Bed Rest
Daniel L. Belavy (2017)
Substantial Asymmetry in Paraspinal Muscle Cross-Sectional Area in Healthy Adults Questions Its Value as a Marker of Low Back Pain and Pathology
Riikka Niemeläinen (2011)
Applicability of ultrasonography for evaluating trunk muscle size: a pilot study
Michio Wachi (2017)
Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP
Knut Andersen (2017)
The Effect of 2 Different Exercise Programs on Pain Intensity and Muscle Dimensions in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Narjess Nabavi (2018)
Real-time ultrasound measures of lumbar erector spinae and multifidus: reliability and comparison to magnetic resonance imaging.
D. L. Belavý (2015)
Relationships between Bat Swing Speed and Muscle Thickness and Asymmetry in Collegiate Baseball Players
Ryo Tsuchikane (2017)
The paravertebral muscle and psoas for the maintenance of global spinal alignment in patient with degenerative lumbar scoliosis.
Mitsuru Yagi (2016)
Surface electromyography-verified muscular damage associated with the open dorsal approach to the lumbar spine
Michael S. Kramer (2001)
Gray's Anatomy for Students.
Roger J G Stevens (2015)
Resistive Simulated Weightbearing Exercise With Whole Body Vibration Reduces Lumbar Spine Deconditioning in Bed-Rest
Daniel L. Belavy (2008)
Percutaneous Radiofrequency Facet Joint Denervation With Monitoring of Compound Muscle Action Potential of the Multifidus Muscle Group for Treating Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Report
Tsukasa Kanchiku (2014)
Predictors of clinical success with stabilization exercise are associated with lower levels of lumbar multifidus intramuscular adipose tissue in patients with low back pain
Jeffrey J. Hebert (2018)
Bilateral differences in the trunk muscle volume of skilled golfers
Yoka Izumoto (2019)
Regional differences within the human supraspinous and interspinous ligaments: a sheet plastination study
Gillian M. Johnson (2001)
Neuromuscular morphometric characteristics in low back pain with unilateral radiculopathy caused by disc herniation: An ultrasound imaging evaluation.
Hadi Sarafraz (2019)
Changes in deep lumbar stabilizing muscle thickness by transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with low back pain.
Seung Ok Baek (2016)
Multifidus and Paraspinal Muscle Group Cross-Sectional Areas of Patients With Low Back Pain and Control Patients: A Systematic Review With a Focus on Blinding
Maryse Fortin (2013)
Effects of stabilization exercise using a ball on mutifidus cross-sectional area in patients with chronic low back pain.
Sinho Chung (2013)
Ultrasound Evaluation of the Abdominal Wall and Lumbar Multifidus Muscles in Participants Who Practice Pilates: A 1‐year Follow‐up Case Series
Paula Gala‐Alarcón (2018)
The morphology of the human lumbar multifidus.
J E Macintosh (1986)
Core Stability in Athletes: A Critical Analysis of Current Guidelines
Klaus J. Wirth (2016)
The effect of lumbar support on the ultrasound measurements of trunk muscles: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.
Mohsen Rostami (2014)
Associations between trunk muscle morphology, strength and function in older adults
Behnaz Shahtahmassebi (2017)
Use of real-time ultrasound imaging for feedback in rehabilitation
Julie A. Hides (1998)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscle: Comparison of Two Different Modalities
Julie A. Hides (1995)
Multifidus Morphology in Persons Scheduled for Single-Level Lumbar Microdiscectomy: Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment with Anatomical Correlates
K. Kulig (2009)
Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles.
Shane Koppenhaver (2009)
CT-based geometric data of human spine musculature. Part I. Japanese patients with chronic low back pain.
James S. Han (1992)
Baastrup's disease correlating with diffuse lumbar paraspinal atrophy: a case report.
Andrew J. Haig (2001)
Population-averaged MRI atlases for automated image processing and assessments of lumbar paraspinal muscles
Yiming Xiao (2018)
Interrelations of muscle functional MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and (31) P-MRS in exercised lower back muscles.
Patrick Hiepe (2014)
A protocol for clinical trial study of the effect of core stabilization exercises on spine kinematics during gait with and without load in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain
Rasool Bagheri (2017)
Self-Managed Exercises, Fitness and Strength Training, and Multifidus Muscle Size in Elite Footballers.
Julie A. Hides (2017)
Small Multifidus Muscle Size Predicts Football Injuries
Julie A. Hides (2014)
Sex Differences in Predicting Chronicity of Low-Back Pain After Acute Trauma Using Lumbar Muscle Area
Hak Il Lee (2015)
Changes in the Cross-Sectional Area of Multifidus and Psoas in Patients With Unilateral Back Pain: The Relationship to Pain and Disability
Karen L. Barker (2004)
Comparison of paraspinal muscle injury in one-level lumbar posterior inter-body fusion: modified minimally invasive and traditional open approaches.
Shun-wu Fan (2010)
Size and symmetry of trunk muscles in ballet dancers with and without low back pain.
Jan E. Gildea (2013)
A randomised clinical trial of subgrouping and targeted treatment for low back pain compared with best current care. The STarT Back Trial Study Protocol
Elaine M. Hay (2008)
A comparison of select trunk muscle thickness change between subjects with low back pain classified in the treatment-based classification system and asymptomatic controls.
Kyle B. Kiesel (2007)
Anatomical relationships between selected segmental muscles of the lumbar spine in the context of multi-planar segmental motion: a preliminary investigation.
R S Jemmett (2004)
Atlas van de anatomie / Dl. 1, Bewegingsapparaat / door Werner Platzer ; ill. Gerhard Spitzer
W Platzer (2012)
Essential clinical anatomy. 4th ed
KL Moore (2011)
Thieme atlas of anatomy / [Vol
M Schünke (2010)
A randomised clinical trial of subgrouping and targeted treatment for low back pain compared with best current care
EM Hay (2008)
Psoas Muscle Area and Quality Are Independent Predictors of Survival in Patients Treated for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.
Iisa Lindström (2019)
Texture analysis of paraspinal musculature in MRI of the lumbar spine: analysis of the lumbar stenosis outcome study (LSOS) data
Manoj Mannil (2018)
Severe Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Is Associated with Modic Changes and Fatty Infiltration in the Paraspinal Muscles at all Lumbar Levels, Except for L1-L2: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50 Symptomatic Women and 50 Age-Matched Symptomatic Men.
Emel Ece Özcan-Ekşi (2019)
Relationship of spinal alignment with muscular volume and fat infiltration of lumbar trunk muscles
Rafael Menezes-Reis (2018)
Association between walking ability and trunk and lower-limb muscle atrophy in institutionalized elderly women: a longitudinal pilot study
Tome Ikezoe (2015)
Approaching the interspace between multifidus and longissimus accurately in lumbar surgery : an anatomically based study of the Wiltse approach
Jianlin Shan (2018)
Lumbar multifidus muscle thickness does not predict patients with low back pain who improve with trunk stabilization exercises.
Kristen A Zielinski (2013)
Development of the anatomical quality assessment (AQUA) tool for the quality assessment of anatomical studies included in meta-analyses and systematic reviews.
Brandon Michael Henry (2017)
Do variations in paraspinal muscle morphology and composition predict low back pain in men?
Maryse Fortin (2015)
The Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle Morphometry of Fast Bowlers in Cricket
Craig A Ranson (2008)
Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging and acute low back pain: a pilot study to characterize lumbar muscle activity asymmetries and examine the effects of osteopathic manipulative treatment
Brian C. Clark (2009)
Sobotta 1 Algemene anatomie en bewegingsapparaat: Atlas van de menselijke anatomie
F Paulsen (2011)
Gym ball exercise leads to recruitment and increased water content of the paraspinal muscles: An MRI pilot study
Deiary F. Kader (2008)
Geography of Lumbar Paravertebral Muscle Fatty Infiltration: The Influence of Demographics, Low Back Pain, and Disability.
Rebecca J Crawford (2019)
The association of trunk muscle cross-sectional area and magnetic resonance image parameters with isokinetic and psychophysical lifting strength and static back muscle endurance in men.
Laura E Gibbons (1997)
Wolf-Heidegger's Atlas of Human Anatomy
Robert M. Santer (1991)
Fear-avoidance beliefs are associated with a high fat content in the erector spinae: a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance imaging study
Eddo Wesselink (2019)
Multifidus muscle size and percentage thickness changes among patients with unilateral chronic low back pain (CLBP) and healthy controls in prone and standing.
Noelle Sweeney (2014)
The biomechanics of the lumbar multifidus.
J E Macintosh (1986)
Intervertebral disc status is associated with vertebral marrow adipose tissue and muscular endurance
Matthew Quittner (2018)
Does lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome have an objective clinical basis?
Thiru M Annaswamy (2013)
Reliability of the Goutallier classification in quantifying muscle fatty degeneration in the lumbar multifidus using magnetic resonance imaging.
Patrick J. Battaglia (2014)
Asymmetry of the cross-sectional area of paravertebral and psoas muscle in patients with degenerative scoliosis
Hyoungmin Kim (2013)
McMinn and Abrahams' Clinical Atlas of Human Anatomy
Jonathan D. Spratt Ma Frcr (2013)
Improved activation of lumbar multifidus following spinal manipulation: a case report applying rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.
Alexander Karl Brenner (2007)
Changes in multifidus and abdominal muscle size in response to microgravity: possible implications for low back pain research
Julie A. Hides (2015)
Lumbar Muscle Dysfunction During Remission of Unilateral Recurrent Nonspecific Low-back Pain: Evaluation With Muscle Functional MRI
Roseline D'hooge (2013)
Comparison of Location, Depth, Quality, and Intensity of Experimentally Induced Pain in 6 Low Back Muscles
Kylie Tucker (2014)
Comparison of Multifidus Muscle Atrophy and Trunk Extension Muscle Strength: Percutaneous Versus Open Pedicle Screw Fixation
Dong-yun Kim (2005)
Fat infiltration of paraspinal muscles is associated with low back pain, disability, and structural abnormalities in community-based adults.
Andrew J. Teichtahl (2015)
Morphologic changes in the lumbar spine after lumbar medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy: a quantitative radiological study.
Mathew Smuck (2015)
Fat Infiltration in the Multifidus Muscle as a Predictor of Prognosis After Decompression and Fusion in Patients with Single-Segment Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: An Ambispective Cohort Study Based on Propensity Score Matching.
Yang Liu (2019)
The Effect of Lumbosacral Orthosis on the Thickness of Deep Trunk Muscles Using Ultrasound Imaging
Fatemeh Azadinia (2019)
Wolf-Heidegger's Atlas of Human Anatomy
Winfried Neuhuber (2007)
Clinical anatomy and management of low back pain : [edited by] L.G.F. Giles and K.P. Singer
Lynton G. F. Giles (1997)
Ultrasound imaging: intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability for multifidus muscle thickness assessment in adults aged 60 to 85 years versus younger adults.
Jaclyn Megan Sions (2014)
Changes in Lumbar Muscle Activity Because of Induced Muscle Pain Evaluated by Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nele Dickx (2008)
Computed tomographic analysis of the quality of trunk muscles in asymptomatic and symptomatic lumbar discectomy patients
Katie G Bouche (2011)
Multifidus size and symmetry among chronic LBP and healthy asymptomatic subjects.
Julie A. Hides (2008)
Multifidus atrophy is localized and bilateral in active persons with chronic unilateral low back pain.
George J. Beneck (2012)
Correlation between lumbar dysfunction and fat infiltration in lumbar multifidus muscles in patients with low back pain
Markus Hildebrandt (2017)
Split laminotomy versus conventional laminotomy: postoperative outcomes in pediatric patients.
Elsa V. Arocho-Quinones (2018)
Cross-sectional area of human trunk paraspinal muscles before and after posterior lumbar surgery using magnetic resonance imaging
Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi (2015)
Fat in the lumbar multifidus muscles - predictive value and change following disc prosthesis surgery and multidisciplinary rehabilitation in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative disc: 2-year follow-up of a randomized trial
Kjersti Storheim (2017)
Pattern of changes in local and global muscle thickness among individuals with sacroiliac joint dysfunction
Leonard Joseph (2015)
Muscle functional MRI analysis of trunk muscle recruitment during extension exercises in asymptomatic individuals.
Eline De Ridder (2015)
Comparison of lumbar multifidus thickness and perceived exertion during graded superman exercises with or without an abdominal drawing-in maneuver in young adults
Young-in Hwang (2018)
Magnetic resonance imaging-based anatomical study of the multifidus-longissimus cleavage planes in the lumbar spine.
Haijun Li (2016)
Book: Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy, Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomy
Torsten Bert Möller (2007)
Test-retest reliability of nerve and muscle morphometric characteristics utilizing ultrasound imaging in individuals with unilateral sciatica and controls
Hadi Sarafraz (2018)
Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects
Mohammad Hosseinifar (2015)
The effect of experimental low back pain on lumbar muscle activity in people with a history of clinical low back pain: a muscle functional MRI study.
Lieven A Danneels (2016)
Treatment goal setting for complex patients: protocol for a scoping review
Agnes Grudniewicz (2016)
Multifidus Muscle Recovery Is Not Automatic After Resolution of Acute, First‐Episode Low Back Pain
Julie A. Hides (1996)
Why do some patients keep hurting their back? Evidence of ongoing back muscle dysfunction during remission from recurrent back pain
David A. Macdonald (2009)
Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.
Daniel L. Belavy (2010)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of the Effects of Surgical Invasiveness on Paravertebral Muscles After Muscle-preserving Interlaminar Decompression (MILD)
Hitoshi Tonomura (2017)
Effect of Motor Control Exercises Versus Graded Activity in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Luciana Gazzi Macedo (2011)
CLINICAL ANATOMY AND MANAGEMENT OF LOW BACK PAIN
Patrick Shwaluk (1997)
Klinische anatomie en embryologie / Dl. 2
H J Donkelaar (2007)
Comparison of Selective Local and Global Muscle Thicknesses in Females with and without Chronic Low Back Pain.
Mahnaz Aboufazeli (2018)
The paraspinal muscle-tendon system: Its paradoxical anatomy
Maud Creze (2019)
The Influence of Lumbar Muscle Volume on Curve Progression After Skeletal Maturity in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.
Kei Watanabe (2018)
Asymmetry of the multifidus muscle in lumbar radicular nerve compression
Mazda Farshad (2013)
Effect of disc degeneration on the muscle recruitment pattern in upright posture: a computational analysis
Young Eun Kim (2015)
Lumbar Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas Do Not Predict Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Spinal Stenosis: A Longitudinal Study.
Alfred C. Gellhorn (2017)
Feneis' geïllustreerd anatomisch zakwoordenboek
Wolfgang Dauber (2006)
A Morphological Comparison of the Human Lumbar Multifidus by Chemical Dissection
M. Elaine Lonnemann (2008)
Is level- and side-specific multifidus asymmetry a marker for lumbar disc pathology?
Michele Battie (2012)
Hilde van der Togt (2003)
Corticomotor control of lumbar multifidus muscles is impaired in chronic low back pain: concurrent evidence from ultrasound imaging and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation
Hugo Massé-Alarie (2015)
Inter-rater reliability of trunk muscle morphometric analysis.
Stéphanie Valentin (2015)
MRI assessment of paraspinal muscles in patients with acute and chronic unilateral low back pain.
Qing Wan (2015)
Rare Case of Complete Fatty Degeneration of the Paraspinal Muscle in a Patient with Low Back Pain
Ibrahim Burak Atci (2016)
Physical inactivity is associated with narrower lumbar intervertebral discs, high fat content of paraspinal muscles and low back pain and disability
Andrew J. Teichtahl (2015)
Assessment of Paraspinal Muscle Cross-sectional Area After Lumbar Decompression: Minimally Invasive Versus Open Approaches
Lacey E. Bresnahan (2017)
Relationship Between Electromyographic Signal Amplitude and Thickness Change of the Trunk Muscles in Patients With and Without Low Back Pain
Olivera C Djordjevic (2015)
Does open surgery reduces functional ability? Asian Spine J
R Tandon (2020)
Color Atlas of Anatomy: Photographic Study of the Human Body
Brion Benninger (2008)
Screening the lumbopelvic muscles for a relationship to injury of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscles among elite Australian Football League players.
Julie A. Hides (2011)
Test-retest reliability of measurements of abdominal and multifidus muscles using ultrasound imaging in adults aged 50-79 years.
William A Cuellar (2017)
Clinical Anatomy of the Lumbar Spine and Sacrum
Gregory P Grieve Fcsp DipTP Mmacp (1997)
The use of real-time ultrasound imaging for biofeedback of lumbar multifidus muscle contraction in healthy subjects.
Khai Van (2006)
Long-term lumbar multifidus muscle atrophy changes documented with magnetic resonance imaging: a case series.
Mark A Woodham (2014)
Contribution of Lumbar Spine Pathology and Age to Paraspinal Muscle Size and Fatty Infiltration
Bahar Shahidi (2017)
Behavior of the lumbar multifidus during lower extremity movements in people with recurrent low back pain during symptom remission.
David A. Macdonald (2011)
Multifidus muscle size and symmetry among elite weightlifters.
Patraporn Sitilertpisan (2012)
Association of sagittal spinal alignment with thickness and echo intensity of lumbar back muscles in middle-aged and elderly women.
Mitsuhiro Masaki (2015)
Are MRI-defined fat infiltrations in the multifidus muscles associated with low back pain?
Per Kjaer (2007)
An investigation into the use of MR imaging to determine the functional cross sectional area of lumbar paraspinal muscles
Craig A Ranson (2005)
Methodological considerations in region of interest definitions for paraspinal muscles in axial MRIs of the lumbar spine
David B. Berry (2018)
Does minimally invasive lumbar disc surgery result in less muscle injury than conventional surgery? A randomized controlled trial
Mark P Arts (2010)
Effects of three different training modalities on the cross sectional area of the lumbar multifidus muscle in patients with chronic low back pain
Lieven A Danneels (2001)
Body mass normalisation for ultrasound measurements of lumbar multifidus and abdominal muscle size.
James L. Nuzzo (2013)
Abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscle size and symmetry at rest and during contracted States. Normative reference ranges.
Deydre S. Teyhen (2012)
Effects of Spinal Stabilization Exercise on the Cross-sectional Areas of the Lumbar Multifidus and Psoas Major Muscles, Pain Intensity, and Lumbar Muscle Strength of Patients with Degenerative Disc Disease
Seongho Kim (2014)
Dynamic changes of elasticity, cross-sectional area, and fat infiltration of multifidus at different postures in men with chronic low back pain.
Suk-Tak Chan (2012)
Interrater and intrarater reliability of transverse abdominal and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness in subjects with and without low back pain.
Olivera C Djordjevic (2014)
Limitations in clinical outcome after posterior stabilization of thoracolumbar fractures do not correlate with dynamic trunk muscle dysfunction: an ultrasound controlled prospective cohort study
Miguel Pishnamaz (2018)
O'Sullivan C Kelly G. Multifidus muscle size Sweeney N (2020)
Assessment of the Cross-Sectional Areas of the Psoas Major and Multifidus Muscles in Patients With Adult Spinal Deformity: A Case-Control Study
Tomohiro Banno (2017)
Fatty Infiltrate of the Lumbar Multifidus Muscles Predicts Return to Play in Young Athletes With Extension-Based Low Back Pain
John Winslow (2019)
Low back and lower-limb muscle performance in male and female recreational runners with chronic low back pain.
Congcong Cai (2015)
Effectiveness of an innovative mattress overlay for improving rehabilitation in low back pain: A pilot randomized controlled study.
Marco Alessandro Minetto (2018)
Selective changes in multifidus dimensions in patients with chronic low back pain
M. J. Stokes (2004)
Changes in paraspinal muscles and their association with low back pain and spinal degeneration: CT study
Leonid Kalichman (2009)
Quantification of Multifidus Atrophy and Fatty Infiltration Following a Minimally Invasive Microdiscectomy
Ehsan Tabaraee (2015)
Muscle activity onset in the lumbar multifidus muscle recorded simultaneously by ultrasound imaging and intramuscular electromyography.
Ottar Vasseljen (2006)
Effect of evidence-based trunk stability exercises on the thickness of the trunk muscles
Hoe-song Yang (2015)
A Universal Model of the Lumbar Back Muscles in the Upright Position
Nikolai Bogduk (1992)
Reliability of histographic analysis for paraspinal muscle degeneration in patients with unilateral back pain using magnetic resonance imaging.
Dong-Won Suh (2017)
Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (STarT Back): a randomised controlled trial
Jonathan C. Hill (2011)
Asymmetric Degeneration of Paravertebral Muscles in Patients With Degenerative Lumbar Scoliosis
Najibullah Shafaq (2012)
Intrarater and interrater reliability of assessment of lumbar multifidus muscle thickness using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging.
Tracy L Wallwork (2007)
Between-day repeatability and symmetry of multifidus cross-sectional area measured using ultrasound imaging.
Janel Frantz Pressler (2006)
Klinische anatomie en embryologie
Hans J. ten Donkelaar (2016)
The effect of diaphragm training on lumbar stabilizer muscles: a new concept for improving segmental stability in the case of low back pain
Regina Finta (2018)
Correlations between core muscle geometry, pain intensity, functional disability and postural balance in patients with nonspecific mechanical low back pain.
Farahnaz Emami (2018)
Clinically oriented anatomy. 6th ed
KL Moore (2010)
Multifidus Degeneration, A New Risk Factor for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: A Case-Control Study.
Jiayao Jiang (2017)
Clinical Correlation between Muscle Damage and Oswestry Disability Index Score after Open Lumbar Surgery: Does Open Surgery Reduces Functional Ability?
Rushama Tandon (2018)
Lumbar muscle volume in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic compression fractures: quantitative measurement using MRI
Chi Wen C. Huang (2019)
The Cross-Sectional Area of Paraspinal Muscles Predicts the Efficacy of Deep Drain Stimulation for Camptocormia.
Waka Sakai (2017)
CT measurement of trunk muscle areas in patients with chronic low back pain.
Müzeyyen Kamaz (2007)
Reliability of ultrasound shear-wave elastography in assessing low back musculature elasticity in asymptomatic individuals.
Shane Koppenhaver (2018)
Comparison of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Cross Sectional Area of Multifidus in Adolescent Soccer Players with and without Low Back Pain: A Case Control Study
Pardis Noormohammadpour (2016)
Effects of core stability exercises on multifidus muscles in healthy women and women with chronic low-back pain.
Irina Klizienė (2015)
Assessment of Association Between Low Back Pain and Paraspinal Muscle Atrophy Using Opposed-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Population-Based Study Among Young Adults
Niko Paalanne (2011)
The effects of rehabilitation on the muscles of the trunk following prolonged bed rest
Julie A. Hides (2010)
CT imaging of trunk muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects
Lieven A Danneels (2000)
Ultrasound measures of the lumbar multifidus: effect of task and transducer position on reliability.
Christian Larivière (2013)
Ultrasound imaging of lumbar multifidus muscle: normal reference ranges for measurements and practical guidance on the technique.
Maria Stokes (2005)
Trunk muscle involvement in late-onset Pompe disease: Study of thirty patients
Aída Alejaldre (2012)
Effects of Trunk Stabilization Exercises on Different Support Surfaces on the Cross-sectional Area of the Trunk Muscles and Balance Ability
Sea Hyun Bae (2013)
Multilevel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Multifidus-Longissimus Cleavage Planes in the Lumbar Spine and Potential Clinical Applications to Wiltse's Paraspinal Approach
Daniel Kyle Palmer (2011)