← Back to Search
Immune Related Adverse Events Associated With Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis
A. Bertrand, M. Kostine, T. Barnetche, M. Truchetet, T. Schaeverbeke
Published 2015 · Medicine
Download PDFAnalyze on Scholarcy
BackgroundTargeting CTLA-4 is a recent strategic approach in cancer control: blocking CTLA-4 enhances an antitumor immunity by promoting T-cell activation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte proliferation. This induction of a tolerance break against the tumor may be responsible for immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Our objective was to assess the incidence and nature of irAEs in oncologic patients receiving anti-CTLA-4 antibodies (ipilimumab and tremelimumab).MethodsA systematic search of literature up to February 2014 was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases to identify relevant articles. Paired reviewers independently selected articles for inclusion and extracted data. Pooled incidence was calculated using R©, package meta.ResultsOverall, 81 articles were included in the study, with a total of 1265 patients from 22 clinical trials included in the meta-analysis. Described irAEs consisted of skin lesions (rash, pruritus, and vitiligo), colitis, and less frequently hepatitis, hypophysitis, thyroiditis, and some rare events such as sarcoidosis, uveitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, immune-mediated cytopenia and polymyalgia rheumatic/Horton. The overall incidence of all-grade irAEs was 72 % (95 % CI, 65–79 %). The overall incidence of high-grade irAEs was 24 % (95 % CI, 18–30 %). The risk of developing irAEs was dependent of dosage, with incidence of all-grade irAEs being evaluated to 61 % (95 % CI, 56–66 %) for ipilimumab 3 mg/kg and 79 % (95 % CI, 69–89 %) for ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. Death due to irAEs occurred in 0.86 % of patients.The median time of onset of irAEs was about 10 weeks (IQR, 6–12) after the onset of treatment, corresponding with the first three cycles but varied according to the organ system involved. Such immune activation could also be indicative for tumor-specific T-cell activation and irAE occurrence was associated with clinical response to CTLA-4 blocking in 60 % of patients.ConclusionThe price of potential long-term survival to metastatic tumors is an atypical immune toxicity, reflecting the mechanism of action of anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. A better knowledge of these irAEs and its management in a multidisciplinary approach will help to reduce morbidity and therapy interruptions.
This paper references
Ipilimumab in patients with melanoma and autoimmune disease
Chrisann Kyi (2014)
Experience in daily practice with ipilimumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma: an early increase in lymphocyte and eosinophil counts is associated with improved survival.
J. Delyon (2013)
Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standard-of-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma.
A. Ribas (2013)
Successful treatment with Ipilimumab and Interleukin-2 in two patients with metastatic melanoma and systemic autoimmune disease
Magnus Pedersen (2014)
Ipilimumab-induced orbital inflammation resembling Graves disease with subsequent development of systemic hyperthyroidism from CTLA-4 receptor suppression.
G. Borodic (2014)
Ipilimumab monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2, dose-ranging study.
J. Wolchok (2010)
The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials
J. P. Higgins (2011)
Modulation of Lymphocyte Regulation for Cancer Therapy: A Phase II Trial of Tremelimumab in Advanced Gastric and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma
C. Ralph (2010)
A phase II multicenter study of ipilimumab with or without dacarbazine in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced melanoma
E. Hersh (2009)
Cutaneous and pulmonary sarcoidosis-like reaction associated with ipilimumab.
Ross B Reule (2013)
Ipilimumab in pretreated patients with metastatic uveal melanoma: safety and clinical efficacy
R. Danielli (2011)
Serious haematological toxicity during and after ipilimumab treatment: a case series
E. Simeone (2014)
Pulmonary sarcoid-like granulomatosis induced by ipilimumab.
G. Berthod (2012)
Continuous systemic corticosteroids do not affect the ongoing regression of metastatic melanoma for more than two years following ipilimumab therapy
K. Harmankaya (2011)
Abatacept (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4‐immunoglobulin) improves B cell function and regulatory T cell inhibitory capacity in rheumatoid arthritis patients non‐responding to anti‐tumour necrosis factor‐α agents
A. Picchianti Diamanti (2014)
Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma.
F. S. Hodi (2010)
Autoimmunity correlates with tumor regression in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4.
P. Attia (2005)
Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis and uveitis in a patient with metastatic melanoma and a history of ipilimumab-induced skin rash.
Neelima N Nallapaneni (2014)
Genetic basis for clinical response to CTLA-4 blockade in melanoma.
A. Snyder (2014)
Phase 2 Trial of Single Agent Ipilimumab (Anti-CTLA-4) for Locally Advanced or Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
R. Royal (2010)
Drug-associated dermatomyositis following ipilimumab therapy: a novel immune-mediated adverse event associated with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 blockade.
Shirwa Sheik Ali (2015)
Ipilimumab-induced sarcoidosis in a patient with metastatic melanoma undergoing complete remission.
W. Vogel (2012)
Myasthenia Gravis Induced by Ipilimumab in Patients With Metastatic Melanoma.
D. Johnson (2015)
Ipilimumab-induced immune-related renal failure--a case report.
P. Forde (2012)
Ipilimumab treatment associated pituitary hypophysitis: Clinical presentation and imaging diagnosis
Yosef G. Chodakiewitz (2014)
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome during ipilimumab therapy for malignant melanoma.
M. Maur (2012)
Anti-CTLA-4 antibody-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome in a melanoma patient.
S. Wilgenhof (2011)
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase II Study Comparing the Tolerability and Efficacy of Ipilimumab Administered with or without Prophylactic Budesonide in Patients with Unresectable Stage III or IV Melanoma
J. Weber (2009)
Ipilimumab plus dacarbazine for previously untreated metastatic melanoma.
C. Robert (2011)
Evaluation of Ipilimumab in Combination With Allogeneic Pancreatic Tumor Cells Transfected With a GM-CSF Gene in Previously Treated Pancreatic Cancer
D. Le (2013)
Immune-Mediated Adverse Events Associated with Ipilimumab CTLA-4 Blockade Therapy: The Underlying Mechanisms and Clinical Management
A. Tarhini (2013)
Ipilimumab (Anti-CTLA4 Antibody) Causes Regression of Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Associated With Enteritis and Hypophysitis
J. Yang (2007)
Has the Microbiota Played a Critical Role in the Evolution of the Adaptive Immune System?
Y. K. Lee (2010)
Humanized Mice as a Model for Aberrant Responses in Human T Cell Immunotherapy
Nalini K. Vudattu (2014)
Loss of CTLA-4 leads to massive lymphoproliferation and fatal multiorgan tissue destruction, revealing a critical negative regulatory role of CTLA-4.
E. Tivol (1995)
Single-institution experience with ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients in the compassionate use setting: lymphocyte count after 2 doses correlates with survival
GY Ku (2010)
Atypical clinical response patterns to ipilimumab.
B. Ledezma (2011)
Tremelimumab for patients with chemotherapy-resistant advanced malignant mesothelioma: an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial.
L. Calabrò (2013)
Ipilimumab-induced acute severe colitis treated by infliximab.
C. Pages (2013)
Hypophysitis caused by ipilimumab in cancer patients: hormone replacement or immunosuppressive therapy.
A. Lammert (2013)
Ipilimumab in patients with cancer and the management of dermatologic adverse events.
M. Lacouture (2014)
Association of ipilimumab therapy for advanced melanoma with secondary adrenal insufficiency: a case series.
L. Min (2012)
Ipilimumab immune-related adverse reactions: a case report.
L. Anderson (2013)
Enterocolitis in patients with cancer after antibody blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4.
Kimberly E. Beck (2006)
[Orbital myositis associated with ipilimumab].
M. Lecouflet (2011)
The risk of rash associated with ipilimumab in patients with cancer: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.
Kira Minkis (2013)
Detection of early onset of hypophysitis by (18)F-FDG PET-CT in a patient with advanced stage melanoma treated with ipilimumab.
B. van der Hiel (2013)
Transient hypophysitis after cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade.
Stephanie A. Shaw (2007)
Survival follow-up and ipilimumab retreatment of patients with advanced melanoma who received ipilimumab in prior phase II studies.
C. Lebbé (2014)
Immune-mediated red cell aplasia after anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma
Ilyssa O. Gordon (2008)
Sweet's syndrome in a patient with metastatic melanoma after ipilimumab therapy.
S. Pintova (2013)
Hyponatremia associated with Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis
Zachary R Barnard (2011)
Tremelimumab (CP-675,206), a cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen 4 blocking monoclonal antibody in clinical development for patients with cancer.
A. Ribas (2007)
Ipilimumab in patients with melanoma and brain metastases: an open-label, phase 2 trial.
K. Margolin (2012)
Single-Center Experience With Ipilimumab in an Expanded Access Program for Patients With Pretreated Advanced Melanoma
S. Wilgenhof (2013)
Elevated rates of transaminitis during ipilimumab therapy for metastatic melanoma
Sebastian G Bernardo (2013)
A prospective phase II trial exploring the association between tumor microenvironment biomarkers and clinical activity of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma
O. Hamid (2010)
a novel Bertrand et al
S Sheik Ali (2015)
Prognostic Factors Related to Clinical Response in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma Treated by CTL-Associated Antigen-4 Blockade
Stephanie G Downey (2007)
Therapeutic efficacy of ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, in patients with metastatic melanoma unresponsive to prior systemic treatments: clinical and immunological evidence from three patient cases
A. D. Giacomo (2008)
Immune toxicities and long remission duration after ipilimumab therapy for metastatic melanoma: two illustrative cases.
H. Assi (2013)
Resolution of severe ipilimumab-induced hepatitis after antithymocyte globulin therapy.
Katarzyna Chmiel (2011)
Lymphocytic colitis secondary to ipilimumab treatment.
Alejandro García-Varona (2013)
Autoimmune inflammatory myopathy after treatment with ipilimumab.
Gary R W Hunter (2009)
First report of ipilimumab‐induced Grover disease
J. Munoz (2014)
Organizing pneumonia as a side effect of ipilimumab treatment of melanoma.
I. Barjaktarevic (2013)
Ipilimumab-associated colitis: CT findings.
K. Kim (2013)
A severe case of ipilimumab-induced guillain-barré syndrome revealed by an occlusive enteric neuropathy: a differential diagnosis for ipilimumab-induced colitis.
C. Gaudy-Marqueste (2013)
Ipilimumab-Induced Hypophysitis: MR Imaging Findings
K. Carpenter (2009)
Immunol. Cell Biol.
M. Fitzgerald (1995)
Drug‐Associated Polymyalgia Rheumatica/Giant Cell Arteritis Occurring in Two Patients After Treatment With Ipilimumab, an Antagonist of CTLA‐4
B. Goldstein (2014)
Inflammatory enteric neuropathy with severe constipation after ipilimumab treatment for melanoma: a case report.
S. Bhatia (2009)
Multifocal radiculoneuropathy during ipilimumab treatment of melanoma
G. Manousakis (2013)
Ipilimumab retreatment in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: the expanded access programme in Italy
V. Chiarion-Sileni (2014)
A case report of orbital inflammatory syndrome secondary to ipilimumab.
A. D. Henderson (2015)
Skin reactions in a subset of patients with stage IV melanoma treated with anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 monoclonal antibody as a single agent.
Samer H Jaber (2006)
Hypophysite lymphocytaire. Endocrinologie-Nutrition, 10-023-D-10
J Salenave (2007)
Long-term survival and immunological parameters in metastatic melanoma patients who responded to ipilimumab 10 mg/kg within an expanded access programme
A. M. Di Giacomo (2013)
Immune Dysregulation in Human Subjects With Heterozygous Germline Mutations in CTLA4
T. Fleisher (2015)
Hemophilia A induced by ipilimumab.
J. Delyon (2011)
Thyroid autoimmunity and ophthalmopathy related to melanoma biological therapy.
L. Min (2011)
Association of CTLA-4 Polymorphisms with Improved Overall Survival in Melanoma Patients Treated with CTLA-4 Blockade: A Pilot Study
P. Queirolo (2013)
New-Onset Mediastinal and Central Nervous System Sarcoidosis in a Patient with Metastatic Melanoma Undergoing CTLA4 Monoclonal Antibody Treatment
K. Murphy (2014)
Ipilimumab experience in heavily pretreated patients with melanoma in an expanded access program at the University Hospital of Siena (Italy)
A. M. Di Giacomo (2010)
YERVOY (ipilimumab): immune-mediated adverse reaction management guide
Bristol-Myers Squibb (2011)
Efficacy and Safety of Retreatment with Ipilimumab in Patients with Pretreated Advanced Melanoma Who Progressed after Initially Achieving Disease Control
C. Robert (2013)
Ipilimumab alone or in combination with radiotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from an open-label, multicenter phase I/II study.
S. Slovin (2013)
Regulating the regulators: costimulatory signals control the homeostasis and function of regulatory T cells
Hélène Bour-Jordan (2009)
Concurrent decrease in IL-10 with development of immune-related adverse events in a patient treated with anti-CTLA-4 therapy.
Jingjing Sun (2008)
Targeting cytotoxic T‐lymphocyte antigen‐4 (CTLA‐4)
S. O’Day (2007)
Efficacy and safety of ipilimumab monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: a multicenter single-arm phase II study.
S. O’Day (2010)
Ipilimumab-induced colitis on FDG PET/CT.
A. Lyall (2012)
The Price of Tumor Control: An Analysis of Rare Side Effects of Anti-CTLA-4 Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma from the Ipilimumab Network
Caroline J Voskens (2013)
Ipilimumabinduced hypophysitis: MR imaging findings
KJ Carpenter (2009)
Atypical neurological complications of ipilimumab therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma.
B. Liao (2014)
Ipilimumab-induced autoimmune pancytopenia in a case of metastatic melanoma.
Pauline du Rusquec (2014)
Decade in review—cancer immunotherapy: Entering the mainstream of cancer treatment
S. Rosenberg (2014)
Preoperative CTLA-4 Blockade: Tolerability and Immune Monitoring in the Setting of a Presurgical Clinical Trial
B. Carthon (2010)
Anti-CTLA4 Monoclonal Antibody Induced Sarcoidosis in a Metastatic Melanoma Patient
A. Eckert (2008)
Kidney injuries related to ipilimumab
H. Izzedine (2014)
Anti-CTLA-4 therapy-related autoimmune hypophysitis in a melanoma patient.
K. Kähler (2009)
Ipilimumab, not just another anti-cancer therapy: hypophysitis as side effect illustrated by four case-reports
Joke Marlier (2014)
Phase II study of the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, tremelimumab, in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
K. Chung (2010)
Neutropenia in a patient treated with ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4 antibody).
M. Akhtari (2009)
Neurological immune-related adverse events of ipilimumab
I. Bot (2013)
Ipilimumab-associated Sweet syndrome in a patient with high-risk melanoma.
Rachel L. Kyllo (2014)
Ipilimumab: a novel immunomodulating therapy causing autoimmune hypophysitis: a case report and review.
A. Juszczak (2012)
Thyroid-Like Ophthalmopathy in a Euthyroid Patient Receiving Ipilimumab
E. Mcelnea (2014)
Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis: a detailed longitudinal analysis in a large cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma.
A. Faje (2014)
Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standardof-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma
A Ribas (2013)
Enterocolitis in Patients With Cancer After Antibody Blockade of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4
M. Gordon (2008)
Ipilimumab-induced thrombocytopenia in a patient with metastatic melanoma
S. Ahmad (2012)
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 blockage can induce autoimmune hypophysitis in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cancer.
J. Blansfield (2005)
Severe colitis while responding to ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma
M. Slingerland (2012)
Influence of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated Antigen 4 (CTLA4) Common Polymorphisms on Outcome in Treatment of Melanoma Patients With CTLA-4 Blockade
W. Breunis (2008)
Severe meningo-radiculo-nevritis associated with ipilimumab
F. Bompaire (2011)
Multiple colon perforation as a fatal complication during treatment of metastatic melanoma with ipilimumab - case report.
Paweł Dilling (2014)
Ipilimumab safety profile: Summary of findings from completed trials in advanced melanoma.
R. Ibrahim (2011)
Clinical studies with anti-CTLA-4 antibodies in non-melanoma indications.
L. Calabrò (2010)
Pathologic Changes in Ipilimumab-Related Hepatitis in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma
D. Kleiner (2012)
Long-term follow-up of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis, a common adverse event of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody in melanoma.
F. Albarel (2015)
Ipilimumab-induced perforating colitis.
K. Mitchell (2013)
The role of CTLA‐4 in the regulation of T cell immune responses
K. McCoy (1999)
Efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma patients surviving more than 2 years following treatment in a phase III trial (MDX010-20).
D. McDermott (2013)
Ipilimumab-induced hepatitis on 18F-FDG PET/CT in a patient with malignant melanoma.
R. Raad (2015)
Infliximab in the treatment of anti-CTLA4 antibody (ipilimumab) induced immune-related colitis.
D. Minor (2009)
Successful administration of ipilimumab to two kidney transplantation patients with metastatic melanoma.
E. Lipson (2014)
Sarcoidosis complicating anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 monoclonal antibody biotherapy
C. Tissot (2013)
Ipilimumab-induced immunerelated renal failure – a case report
PM Forde (2012)
Autoimmunity and treatment outcome in melanoma
Marna G. Bouwhuis (2011)
Immunotherapy: past, present and future
T. Waldmann (2003)
Melanoma-Associated Retinopathy Treated with Ipilimumab Therapy
A. Audemard (2013)
Refractory Colitis Following Anti-CTLA4 Antibody Therapy: Analysis of Mucosal FOXP3+ T Cells
J. Lord (2009)
J Salenave (2007)
Myosite orbitaire associée à un traitement par ipilimumab
M. Lecouflet (2011)
The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy
D. Pardoll (2012)
Fc-dependent depletion of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells co-defines the efficacy of anti–CTLA-4 therapy against melanoma
Tyler R. Simpson (2013)
Association between ipilimumab and celiac disease.
Nicole M. Gentile (2013)
Phase I/II study of ipilimumab for patients with metastatic melanoma.
J. Weber (2008)
Neutrophilic disease of the skin and intestines after ipilimumab treatment for malignant melanoma — simultaneous occurrence of pyoderma gangrenosum and colitis
B. Rudolph (2014)
Case of the month. Autoimmune colitis secondary to CTLA-4 blockade.
Angie Tsiaras (2011)
Ipilimumab-induced immunomediated adverse events: possible pitfalls in (18)F-FDG PET/CT interpretation.
L. Gilardi (2014)
Antitumor activity in melanoma and anti-self responses in a phase I trial with the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody CP-675,206.
A. Ribas (2005)
Lymphocytic vasculitis of the uterus in a patient with melanoma receiving ipilimumab.
D. Minor (2013)
Identification and management of toxicities from immune checkpoint-blocking drugs.
B. Teply (2014)
Anti-CTLA4 antibody-induced lupus nephritis.
F. Fadel (2009)
Enterocolitis in a patient being treated with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma.
C. Koch (2012)
Antitumor granuloma formation by CD4+ T cells in a patient with rapidly progressive melanoma experiencing spiking fevers, neuropathy, and other immune-related toxicity after treatment with ipilimumab.
J. Luke (2015)
This paper is referenced by
Incidence and Management of Immune-Related Adverse Events in Patients Undergoing Treatment with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
L. Kottschade (2018)
Immunotherapy-Induced Colitis: An Emerging Problem for the Hospitalist
J. Marin-Acevedo (2018)
Immunoprofiling as a predictor of patient's response to cancer therapy-promises and challenges.
D. Bethmann (2017)
Tremelimumab-Induced Graves Hyperthyroidism
E. H. Gan (2017)
TUMOR IMMUNOTHERAPY: MECHANISMS OF ACQUIRED RESISTANCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMUNE RELATED TOXICITIES
A. Jaiswal (2018)
Haploinsufficiency of immune checkpoint receptor CTLA4 induces a distinct neuroinflammatory disorder.
M. K. Schindler (2020)
Germline Genetics in Immuno-oncology: From Genome-Wide to Targeted Biomarker Strategies.
T. Kirchhoff (2020)
Immune therapy, a double-edged sword for oncolytic viruses
Ryan M McCormack (2019)
Autoimmune genetic risk variants as germline biomarkers of response to melanoma immune-checkpoint inhibition
Vylyny Chat (2019)
Severe Diarrhea in the Setting of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Jean Kuo (2018)
Systemic inflammation in a melanoma patient treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors—an autopsy study
V. Koelzer (2016)
Immunotherapy Outcomes in Advanced Melanoma in Relation to Age.
K. Joshi (2020)
Title The impact of body composition parameters on ipilimumab toxicity and survival in patients with metastatic melanoma
Louise E. Daly (2019)
Rheumatic immune-related adverse events in patients on anti-PD-1 inhibitors: Fasciitis with myositis syndrome as a new complication of immunotherapy.
J. Narváez (2018)
A whole-blood RNA transcript-based gene signature is associated with the development of CTLA-4 blockade-related diarrhea in patients with advanced melanoma treated with the checkpoint inhibitor tremelimumab
P. Friedlander (2018)
Fecal microbiota transplantation for refractory immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated colitis
Yinghong Wang (2018)
Managing toxicities associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors: consensus recommendations from the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) Toxicity Management Working Group
I. Puzanov (2017)
Recent perspective on CAR and Fcγ-CR T cell immunotherapy for cancers: Preclinical evidence versus clinical outcomes.
H. E. Marei (2019)
Hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors in a Scottish melanoma population
Khor Zhong Wei (2019)
Combination Immunotherapy with Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen-4 and Programmed Death Protein-1 Inhibitors Prevents Postoperative Breast Tumor Recurrence and Metastasis
T. Sun (2019)
Toxicity of Checkpoint Inhibition in Advanced RCC: A Systematic Review
M. Ornstein (2017)
Risk factors for immune-related adverse events associated with anti-PD-1 pembrolizumab
Y. Eun (2019)
Immune-related adverse events following administration of anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 drugs: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
Hang Xu (2019)
Collateral Damage: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Induced With Checkpoint Inhibitors
Angeliki M Stamatouli (2018)
Safety and efficacy of abatacept in patients with treatment-resistant SARCoidosis (ABASARC) – protocol for a multi-center, single-arm phase IIa trial
B. Frye (2020)
Autoimmune T-cells induced by low dose immune checkpoint blockade could be a powerful therapeutic tool in cancer through activation of eliminative inflammation and immunity
T. Bakacs (2017)
Challenges in diagnosis and management of neutropenia upon exposure to immune-checkpoint inhibitors: meta-analysis of a rare immune-related adverse side effect
J. Bögeholz (2020)
Management of Immune-Mediated Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorders
I. Ayzenberg (2017)
The Window Is Wide Open: Evaluating the Rationale for Window of Opportunity Studies in Breast Cancer with a Focus on Immune Therapies
N. Nixon (2017)
IpiColitis: ipilimumab-induced colitis with a wide spectrum of histological features
Brandon Trac (2018)
Cutaneous Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Summarized Overview.
K. Plachouri (2019)
64-Year-Old Man With Altered Mental Status.
Tyler J Schmidt (2020)See more