Genealogical Relationship Inference To Identify Areas Of Intensive Poaching Of The Orange-fronted Parakeet (Eupsittula Canicularis)
The Orange-fronted Parakeet (
Poached parakeets showed high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.842) and low nucleotide diversity (Pi = 0.00182). Among 22 haplotypes identified, 18 were found exclusively in 37 individuals, while four were detected in the remaining 43 individuals and shared with the wild populations. A rarefaction and extrapolation curve revealed that 240 poached individuals can include up to 47 haplotypes and suggested that the actual haplotype richness of poached parakeets is higher than our analyses indicate. The geographic locations of the four haplotypes shared between poached and wild parakeets ranged from Michoacan to Sinaloa, Mexico. However, the rare haplotypes detected in poached parakeets were derived from a recent genetic expansion of the species that has occurred between the northwest of Michoacan and the coastal region of Colima, Jalisco and southern Nayarit, Mexico.
Poached parakeets showed high genetic diversity, suggesting high extraction of the genetic pool of the species in central Mexico. Rarefaction and extrapolation analyses suggest that the actual haplotype richness in poached parakeets is higher than reflected by our analyses. The poached parakeets belong mainly to a very diverse genetic group of the species, and their most likely origin is between northern Michoacan and southern Nayarit, Mexico. We found no evidence that poachers included individuals from Central American international trafficking with individuals from Mexico in the sample.