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Emerging Era Of Microneedle Array For Pharmaceutical And Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances And Toxicological Perspectives

Shailesh Dugam, Rahul Tade, Rani Dhole, Sopan Nangare

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Abstract Background Microneedles (MNs) are the utmost unique, efficient, and minimally invasive inventions in the pharmaceutical field. Over the past decades, many scientists around the globe have reported MNs cautious because of their superb future in distinct areas. Concerning the wise use of MNs herein, we deal in depth with the present applications of MNs in drug delivery. Main text The present review comprises various fabrication materials and methods used for MN synthesis. The article also noted the distinctive advantages of these MNs, which holds huge potential for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The role of MNs in serving as a platform to treat various ailments has been explained accompanied by unusual approaches. The review also inculcates the pharmacokinetics of MNs, which includes permeation, absorption, and bioavailability enhancement. Besides this, the in vitro/in vivo toxicity, biosafety, and marketed product of MNs have been reviewed. We have also discussed the clinical trials and patents on the pharmaceutical applications of MNs in brief. Conclusion To sum up, this article gives insight into the MNs and provides a recent advancement in MNs, which pave the pathway for future pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Graphical abstract Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of MNs