Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

The Case For A Global Ban On Asbestos

J. LaDou, B. Castleman, A. Frank, M. Gochfeld, M. Greenberg, J. Huff, T. Joshi, P. Landrigan, R. Lemen, J. Myers, M. Soffritti, C. Soskolne, K. Takahashi, D. Teitelbaum, B. Terracini, A. Watterson
Published 2010 · Medicine

Save to my Library
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Share
BACKGROUND All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called "controlled use" of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. OBJECTIVE We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. DISCUSSION All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. CONCLUSIONS All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos.
This paper references
Good Practice Note: Asbestos: Occupational and Community Health Issues Available: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTPOPS/Resources/ AsbestosGuidanceNoteFinal.pdf [accessed 3
Bank World (2009)
10.2190/KG5T-7GPJ-1L6X-45BK
Controversies at International Organizations over Asbestos Industry Influence
B. Castleman (2001)
10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04013-7
Genetic-susceptibility factor and malignant mesothelioma in the Cappadocian region of Turkey
Iman Roushdy-Hammady (2001)
Supplemental Responses to Plaintiff's Interrogatories and Document Requests Directed to Defendant Ford Motor Company. Consolidated Case No 2408000004. Superior Court for Baltimore City
Dietz
A Conference on Asbestos and Mesothelioma Encore at Wynn Las Vegas Available: https://www.perrinconferences. com/html/previous_events-asbestos_meso_conf
Perrin Conferences (2010)
10.2190/3V5L-THWY-FCVD-R5NG
WTO Confidential: The Case of Asbestos
B. Castleman (2003)
10.1179/OEH.2003.9.3.294
“Controlled Use” of Asbestos
B. Castleman (2003)
10.1186/1750-1172-1-44
Mesothelioma mortality in Europe: impact of asbestos consumption and simian virus 40
K. Leithner (2006)
10.1179/oeh.2003.9.3.194
Scientific Controversy and Asbestos: Making Disease Invisible
L. Braun (2003)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199609)30:3<252::AID-AJIM2>3.0.CO;2-0
Chrysotile asbestos is the main cause of pleural mesothelioma.
A. Smith (1996)
ILO Adopts New Measures on Occupational Safety and Health, the Employment Relationship
Environmental Protection Agency). 1986. Airborne Asbestos Health Assessment Update
10.1038/sj.bjc.6604879
Occupational, domestic and environmental mesothelioma risks in the British population: a case–control study
C. Rake (2009)
Occupational exposure to asbestos: final rule
Occupational Safety (1994)
Prevention of cancer through healthy workplaces.
A. Ullrich (2007)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration Occupational exposure to asbestos: final rule
(1994)
The global asbestos struggle today
BI Castleman (2001)
10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60251-6
Health experts concerned over India's asbestos industry
T. Burki (2010)
10.1179/107735210799160282
Scientists Appeal to Quebec Premier Charest to Stop Exporting Asbestos to the Developing World
T. Takaro (2010)
10.1179/oeh.2007.13.3.318
Asbestos Exposure Causes Mesothelioma, But Not This Asbestos Exposure: An Amicus Brief to the Michigan Supreme Court
L. Welch (2007)
10.1289/EHP.6704
The asbestos cancer epidemic.
J. LaDou (2004)
10.1097/01.jom.0000152921.94835.f3
The Art of Perpetuating a Public Health Hazard
M. Greenberg (2005)
10.1179/oeh.2003.9.3.206
Malignant Mesothelioma in Australia, 1945–2002
J. Leigh (2003)
Research on Mesothelioma from Brake Exposure: Corporate Influence Remains Relevant Concern
L. Welch (2009)
Elimination o f A s b e s t o s -R e l a t e d D i s e a s e s
Occupational exposure to asbestos : final rule
XL Pan
The global asbestos struggle
B Castleman (2007)
10.1179/oeh.2004.10.2.233
Chrysotile Asbestos as a Cause of Mesothelioma: Application of the Hill Causation Model
R. Lemen (2004)
10.1097/MCP.0b013e3282fcea65
Mesothelioma due to environmental exposure to erionite in Turkey
O. Dikensoy (2008)
Cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile asbestos: a meta-analysis.
Lu Li (2004)
10.1136/oem.54.9.646
Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.
L. Stayner (1997)
10.1016/J.YRTPH.2007.10.003
Mesothelioma and asbestos.
G. Gibbs (2008)
10.1201/9781420061888_ch34
Toxicological profile for asbestos
G. Hanley (2001)
Minerals Yearbook [Advance Release]. Reston,VA:U.S. Geological Survey, 8.1-8.6. Available: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/ commodity/asbestos/myb1-2008-asbes
(2008)
10.2307/2693937
European Communities—Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products
D. Wirth (2002)
10.1136/oem.2007.037002
The burden of cancer at work: estimation as the first step to prevention
L. Rushton (2007)
10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06816-7
Familial malignant mesothelioma
R. Saracci (2001)
10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17102-X
Evidence against a role for SV40 infection in human mesotheliomas and high risk of false-positive PCR results owing to presence of SV40 sequences in common laboratory plasmids
F. Lopez-Rios (2004)
10.1007/978-3-540-47648-1_3107
International Agency for Research on Cancer.
H. Bartsch (1969)
10.1136/oem.56.8.505
Mesothelioma: cases associated with non-occupational and low dose exposures.
G. Hillerdal (1999)
10.1289/ehp.0901680
Exposure to Asbestos-Containing Vermiculite Ore and Respiratory Symptoms among Individuals Who Were Children While the Mine Was Active in Libby, Montana
L. Vinikoor (2010)
10.1136/oem.2007.038224
The burden of occupational cancer
K. Straif (2008)
10.1038/nnano.2009.327
Nanotoxicology: new insights into nanotubes.
K. Donaldson (2009)
10.1080/08828032.1987.10389787
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.
10.2486/INDHEALTH.37.271
The hazards of chrysotile asbestos: a critical review.
P. Landrigan (1999)
10.1164/RCCM.200412-1731OC
Residential proximity to naturally occurring asbestos and mesothelioma risk in California.
X. Pan (2005)
10.1179/oeh.2004.10.1.22
Global Use of Asbestos and the Incidence of Mesothelioma
A. Tossavainen (2004)
The crusade against chrysotile must end
10.1002/AJIM.10334
Asbestos in brakes: exposure and risk of disease.
R. Lemen (2004)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(1994)
Excess of mesotheliomas alter exposure to chrysotile in
D Mirabelli (2008)
Chrysotile Asbestos. Environmental Health Criteria 203. Geneva:World Health Organization
Chrysotile
Natural Resources Canada. (2006)
Asbestos Exposure and Cancer. Bethesda, MD:National Institutes of Health Available: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/ asbestos
(2003)
10.1179/107735207800245036
The Role of Asbestos Fiber Dimensions in the Prevention of Mesothelioma
L. Tomatis (2007)
10.1179/oeh.2003.9.3.173
The Asbestos War
L. Kazan-Allen (2003)
10.1179/oeh.2004.10.1.99
Re: Controlled Use of Asbestos
D. Egilman (2004)
Good Practice Note: Asbestos: Occupational and Community Health Issues
Saving the asbestos industry
J Mcculloch (1960)
The crusade against chrysotile must end [Editorial] Available: http://www. chrysotile.com/data/newsletter
Chrysotile Institute (2008)
WHO (World Health Organization). 2007. WHO Calls for Prevention of Cancer through Healthy Workplaces. Geneva:WHO. Available: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ news/notes
(2007)
10.1002/AJIM.20209
The global burden of disease due to occupational carcinogens.
T. Driscoll (2005)
10.1056/NEJM199805283382201
Nonoccupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos and the risk of lung cancer.
M. Camus (1998)
10.5271/SJWEH.226
Asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer: the Helsinki criteria for diagnosis and attribution.
A. Tossavainen (1997)
10.1038/sj.bjc.6602307
The expected burden of mesothelioma mortality in Great Britain from 2002 to 2050
J. Hodgson (2005)
Occup Environ Med 47(2):137–144
J hazard (1999)
Comprar Defending the Indefensible The Global Asbestos Industry and its Fight for Survival | Jock McCulloch | 9780199534852 | Oxford University Press
J. Mcculloch (2008)
Policy Resolution GC09-C36-Chrysotile Asbestos
10.1191/074823399678846961
Call for an international ban on asbestos.
C. Maltoni (1999)
10.1016/S0140-6736(05)61846-6
Global burden of disease
J. Barendregt (1997)
11th Report on Carcinogens, Research Triangle Park, NC:National Toxicology Program
NTP. (2004)
Re : regulatory toxicology and pharmacology [ Letter ]
KM Bang (2003)
NC:National Toxicology Program
Ntp (2004)
10.1179/107735202800338984
The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and Its Influence on International Organizations
N. Ash́ford (2002)
INTERNATIONAL Social Security Association.
Erik DE Gier (1948)
Asbestos Exposure and Cancer. Bethesda, MD:National Institutes of Health
Asbestos: Our Position
Salud Ocupacional.
B. Castleman (1998)
The burden of cancer
L 357444–445. Rushton (2008)
United Nations Statistics Division Homepage
Natural Resources Canada
Mesothelioma associated with environmental exposures.
R. Pasetto (2005)
GA. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
10.3133/CIR1255KK
Mineral commodity profiles -- asbestos
Robert L. Virta (2005)
Re: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.
O. Axelson (2003)
10.1179/oeh.2006.12.1.9
Malignant Mesothelioma Mortality in the United States, 1999–2001
K. M. Bang (2006)
10.1002/wnan.41
Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?
V. C. Sanchez (2009)
Mineral Commodity Profiles-Asbestos. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1255-KK
R L Virta
Litigation-generated science: why
LI Boden (2008)
10.1179/oeh.2007.13.2.236
Canada's Asbestos Legacy at Home and Abroad
J. Brophy (2007)
Mineral Commodity Profiles—Asbestos. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1255-KK. Available: http://pubs. usgs.gov/circ
Rl Virta (1255)
Physician expelled from Indian Association of Occupational Health after critique.
T. Joshi (2009)
Available: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Russia- MINING.html [accessed 3
(2010)
Re: regulatory toxicology and pharmacology [Letter]
O Axelson (2003)
Letter to the editor of Salud Ocupacional
B. Castleman (1998)
10.1136/oem.2008.044362
Lung cancer mortality and fibre exposures among North Carolina asbestos textile workers
D. Loomis (2009)
10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199810)34:4<314::AID-AJIM3>3.0.CO;2-S
Carcinogenic implications of the lack of tremolite in UICC reference chrysotile.
A. Frank (1998)
10.1007/978-90-6704-557-5_6
Draft Procedures and Mechanisms on Compliance with the 1998 Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
S. Brugnatelli (2009)
10.1136/JCP.33.6.608-C
Environmental Health Criteria
H. Kay (1980)
10.3816/CLC.2004.S.002
Pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma.
M. Carbone (2004)
10.1136/oem.2007.037689
Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy
D. Mirabelli (2008)
10.1093/SHM/HKP039
Defending the Indefensible: The Global Asbestos Industry and its Fight for Survival
J. Melling (2009)
Asbestos: TLV Chemical Substances 7th Edition Documentation. Publication No. 7DOC-040
(2001)
Current Asbestos Bans and Restrictions
(2010)
International expert meeting on new advances in the radiology and screening of asbestosrelated diseases. Consensus report
A Tossavainen (2000)
10.1016/J.LUNGCAN.2005.03.002
Asbestos and mesothelioma: worldwide trends.
L. Kazan-Allen (2005)
Airborne Asbestos Health Assessment Update. EPA/6000/8-84/003E
(1986)
Minerals Yearbook
Usgs (2008)
Pathogenesis of malignant
M Carbone (2010)
Declaration on Asbestos Beijing Available: http://www.issa.int/aiss/ Resources/Resources/Declaration-on-Asbestos-Beijing- 2004
(2004)
10.5271/SJWEH.567
International expert meeting on new advances in the radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases.
A. Tossavainen (2000)
Malignant mesothelioma in Australia
A. Musk (2006)
10.1289/ehp.9987
Litigation-Generated Science: Why Should We Care?
L. Boden (2008)
10.2105/AJPH.86.2.179
Occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos and cancer risk: a review of the amphibole hypothesis.
L. Stayner (1996)
10.1163/WTOGATT-CS142A
Case 142A - European Communities - Measures Affecting Asbestos and Asbestos-Containing Products
T. P. Stewart (2012)
WHO (World Health Organization). 2005. WHO Workshop on Mechanisms of Fibre Carcinogenesis and Assessment of Chrysotile Asbestos Substitutes
(2005)
CPHA Position Statement. Call for a Ban on the Mining, Transformation and Export of Chrysotile Asbestos
Mesothelioma Trial Cluster ( M102 ) . Supplemental Responses to Plaintiff ’ s Interrogatories and Document Requests Directed to Defendant Ford Motor Company
O Dikensoy (2008)
Asbestos: CAS No. 1332-21-4
(1980)
Occup Environ Med 41(10):830–832
J asbestos (2009)
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
10.1196/annals.1371.058
Manufactured Uncertainty
D. Michaels (2006)
10.1002/AJIM.20451
Mesothelioma in blood related subjects: report of 11 clusters among 1954 Italy cases and review of the literature.
V. Ascoli (2007)
10.1038/jes.2009.56
Assessment of cancer risks due to environmental exposure to asbestos
Hermen A L Driece (2010)
10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60412-7
Ecological association between asbestos-related diseases and historical asbestos consumption: an international analysis
Ro-Ting Lin (2007)
Asbestos and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State of the Science and Roadmap for Research, Version 4
(2010)
10.2307/3434419
Asbestos and cancer: An overview of current trends in Europe.
M. Albin (1999)
A review of human carcinogens
F El Ghissassi (2009)
10.1093/OCCMED/KQM079
Simian virus 40 and mesothelioma in Great Britain.
M. Price (2007)
WHO Workshop on Mechanisms of Fibre Carcinogenesis and Assessment of Chrysotile Asbestos Substitutes
Scientists appeal to Quebec Premier
JC IIIBailar (2010)
10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70134-2
A review of human carcinogens--Part C: metals, arsenic, dusts, and fibres.
K. Straif (2009)
Asbestos Exposure and Cancer
National Cancer Institute. (2003)
Policy Resolution GC09- C36—Chrysotile Asbestos. Available: http://tinyurl.com/ yknhlee [accessed 21
(2009)
Asbestos: Our Position Available: http://www.cancer.ca/Canada-wide/Prevention/ Specific%20environmental%20contaminants/Asbestos.aspx [accessed 21
(2010)
10.1177/003335490612100517
Saving the Asbestos Industry, 1960 TO 2006
J. Mcculloch (2006)
10.1038/nnano.2009.305
Inhaled Carbon Nanotubes Reach the Sub-Pleural Tissue in Mice
Jessica P. Ryman-Rasmussen (2009)
10.1038/scientificamerican0605-96
Doubt is their product.
D. Michaels (2005)
Chrysotile Available: http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/cmy-amc/ content
Canada Natural Resources (2006)
10.1136/jech.2009.089524
Addressing conflict in strategic literature reviews: disclosure is not enough
D. Michaels (2009)
10.1002/ajim.20756
Developments in asbestos cancer risk assessment.
M. Silverstein (2009)
How Litigation Shapes the Scientific Literature: Asbestos & Disease Among Automobile Mechanics
D. Michaels (2008)
10.1289/ehp.117-a218a
Doubt Is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on Science Threatens Your Health
S. G. Gilbert (2009)



This paper is referenced by
10.3123/JEMSGE.33.14
In Vitro and In Vivo Genotoxicity Induced by Fullerene (C60) and Kaolin
Y. Totsuka (2011)
10.1179/2049396714Y.0000000092
Case report: peritoneal mesothelioma from asbestos in hairdryers
J. Dahlgren (2015)
Troublesome Evaluation of Technological Innovations. Balancing between a Blessing and a Bane of the Technological Progress
Sztumski Wiesław (2017)
10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.09.068
Morphological changes during enhanced carbonation of asbestos containing material and its comparison to magnesium silicate minerals.
G. Gadikota (2014)
10.1289/EHP.TRP040111
Asbestos Trends Worldwide, with Richard Lemen
Ashley Ahearn (2011)
10.7916/D8KH0K9J
Geo-Chemo-Physical Studies of Carbon Mineralization for Natural and Engineered Carbon Storage
G. Gadikota (2014)
10.1002/ajim.22069
Cancer incidence in a chlorochemical plant in Isère, France: an occupational cohort study, 1979-2002.
V. Bonneterre (2012)
10.1093/ije/dyw136
Asbestos and product defence science.
B. Terracini (2016)
10.1371/journal.pone.0025391
LRRN4 and UPK3B Are Markers of Primary Mesothelial Cells
M. Kanamori-Katayama (2011)
10.1007/S10163-018-0796-4
Disposal of asbestos and products containing asbestos in Poland
D. Szymańska (2019)
Emerging evidence that the ban on asbestos use is reducing the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in Sweden
E. Mc (2015)
10.1289/ehp.120-a270a
Newly Discovered Mechanism for Chlorpyrifos Effects on Neurodevelopment
C. Potera (2012)
10.1289/ehp.119-a244
HAZARDOUS WASTE: Pond Algae Sequester Strontium-90
C. Potera (2011)
10.1097/JTO.0b013e3182572e83
Increased Circulating miR-625-3p: A Potential Biomarker for Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
M. Kirschner (2012)
10.4161/cc.27546
Pharmacological targeting of p53 through RITA is an effective antitumoral strategy for malignant pleural mesothelioma
Domenico Di Marzo (2014)
Coal Fire emissions Curb Children's Growth
Erin E Dooley (2011)
Asbestos exposure and incidence of disease among a group of former chrysotile asbestos miners and millers from Baie Verte, NL, Canada
G Murphy (2015)
10.3390/ENVIRONMENTS6070076
Epidemiology of Mesothelioma
D. Cavone (2019)
10.1007/978-3-642-41193-9_2
Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Asbestos
D. Darcey (2014)
10.15446/revfacmed.v67n4.77744
Asbestos in Colombia: Industry versus science and health
Guillermo Antonio Villamizar (2019)
Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma and the Role of Non – Operative Therapies Kelvin
C. Ng (2018)
10.1177/1048291116678435
Criminality and Asbestos in Industry
B. Castleman (2017)
10.1007/978-3-642-41193-9_12
Medicolegal Aspects of Asbestos-Related Diseases: A Plaintiff’s Attorney’s Perspective
Ronald L. Motley (2014)
10.2190/NS.23.2.k
Malignant Mesothelioma, Airborne Asbestos, and the Need for Accuracy in Chrysotile Risk Assessments
C. Meisenkothen (2013)
10.1007/s13206-013-7304-7
Proteomic profiling of differentially expressed proteins after exposure to asbestos
A-Reum Ryu (2013)
10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2014.06.022
Asbestos and asbestos waste management in the Asian-Pacific region: trends, challenges and solutions
J. Li (2014)
In Vitro and In Vivo Genotoxicity Induced by Fullerene ( C 60 ) and Kaolin
Y. Totsuka (2011)
Investigating heterogeneity of growth and drug response in mesotheliomas
Roxanne Otadoy (2013)
10.1179/2049396712Y.0000000009
Mesothelioma associated with use of drywall joint compound: a case series and review of literature
James G Dahlgren (2012)
10.1038/jes.2014.8
Personal exposure to asbestos and respiratory health of heavy vehicle brake mechanics
María Fernanda Cely-García (2014)
10.3810/pgm.2012.05.2555
Asbestos–Related Pleuropulmonary Diseases: Benign and Malignant
A. Lazarus (2012)
10.1038/s41379-019-0332-7
Chrysotile fibers in tissue adjacent to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in cases with a history of occupational asbestos exposure
Stephanie K. Wronkiewicz (2019)
See more
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar