Online citations, reference lists, and bibliographies.
← Back to Search

Asbestos-Related Research : First Objectivity Then Conclusions

S. Jargin
Published 2016 ·

Cite This
Download PDF
Analyze on Scholarcy
Asbestos-related risks have been extrapolated from the past, when high-dose occupational exposures were frequent. The linear no-threshold dose-response pattern has been assumed, but its applicability to low-dose asbestos exposures has never been proven. Morphologically, malignant mesothelioma can resemble various cancers. There are diagnostic algorithms; however, a tumor diagnosed by standard methods as mesothelioma is not a welldefined entity, in all cases substantially different from other cancers. Well-aimed search and screening effect have probably contributed to the enhanced incidence of mesothelioma and other asbestosrelated diseases in exposed populations. Asbestos-related diseases have been extensively studied in Russia. The prevailing view is that, if all precautions are observed, modern technologies of asbestos production and processing are acceptably safe, whereas bans and prohibitions applied by some countries are excessive. At the same time, there are economic interests to promote chrysotile. Biases due to industrial interests have compromised the objectivity of some asbestosrelated reports. In the author’s opinion, the “all fibers equal” basis of official regulations can be accepted provisionally pending objective and reliable evidence on toxicity of different asbestos types and manmade substitutes. On the basis of independent scientific data, the bans and restrictions on asbestos in some countries should be re-examined and potentially revised. Any permit of continued production or use of asbestos materials must be coupled with regulations and efficient measures to prevent environmental contamination associated even with minimal additional risks. Asbestos-related risks have been estimated on the basis of extrapolations from the past, when high-dose occupational and non-occupational exposures were frequent. Evolution of the concept of lowvs. high-dose asbestos exposures can be illustrated by the gradual decline of the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) adopted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): 197112 f/cc of air as a 8 h time weighed average; 19725; 1976-2; in 1986, the current PEL for asbestos in the workplace was established: 0.1 f/ cc [1,2]. A well-known asbestos contamination was the “Mr Fluffy” incident in Australia (1960-70s), where loose asbestos was used for insulation of houses [3]. In Russia, corrugated asbestos board has been broadly used for roofing being often sawed by hand; asbestoscement pipes are routinely used for drinking water distribution (Figure 1) [4]. Other asbestos-containing materials (flat sheets, asbestos paper, cloth, gaskets, etc.) are broadly used now as before. The linear no-threshold dose-response pattern has generally been assumed for the low exposure levels, but its applicability to low-dose asbestos exposures has never been proven. In some places, asbestos fibers are present in the natural environment due to erosion of surface deposits. For example, the fibers were detected in the lungs of 63.6% deceased individuals from the general population [5]. Inhalation and discharge of the fibers occur normally [6], probably within a dynamic equilibrium. Existence of a threshold for the exposure to mineral fibers has not been reported, but may be assumed by analogy with other environmental factors that have induced evolutionary adaptation [7,8]. Further research into non-linear, threshold cancer risk models is warranted both for asbestos [9], and for its substitutes. Apparently, the screening effect has contributed to the enhanced registered incidence of asbestos-related diseases in exposed populations and an over estimation of the dose-response relationship. In particular, mesothelioma (Mt) was sought among exposed people and correspondingly more often found. Malignant Mt is an uncommon neoplasm developed by a small percentage of people exposed to asbestos. It can be spontaneous, or occur when asbestos fibers are present in the pulmonary or pleural tissues. Apart from asbestos, other potential etiologic factors of malignant Mt are mineral (erionite) and artificial (ceramic, carbone nanotubes) fibers [10-13], virus SV40, radiation, and genetic predisposition [14-17] (Figure 2). Misclassification of disease is a problem for several of the cancer Sergei V. Jargin* Department of Pathology, People’s Friendship University of Russia, Russia *Address for Correspondence Sergei V. Jargin, Department of Pathology, People’s Friendship University of Russia, Clementovski per 6-82, 115184 Moscow, Russia, Tel: +7 495 9516788; E-mail: Submission: 12 October, 2015 Accepted: 01 December, 2015 Published: 07 December, 2015 Copyright: © 2015 Jargin SV. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Review Article Open Access
This paper references
MM Finkelstein (2015)
Discovery of new biomarkers for malignant mesothelioma
J. Creaney (2015)
Tumors that mimic asbestos-related mesothelioma: time to consider a genetics-based tumor registry?
B. Kerger (2014)
Utility of Osteopontin and Serum Mesothelin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Diagnosis and Prognosis Assessment
B. Grigoriu (2007)
The role of microRNAs in the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma--a short review.
Kelly W Sheff (2012)
Chrysophiles versus Chrysophobes
G. Tweedale (2004)
Mortality of former crocidolite (blue asbestos) miners and millers at Wittenoom
A. Musk (2007)
Downregulated microRNAs in the differential diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma
G. V. Gee (2010)
Asbestos Fibers Contributing to the Induction of Human Malignant Mesothelioma
Y. Suzuki (2002)
Asbestos-related cancer and the amphibole hypothesis. The first documentation of the association.
J. Wagner (1997)
Molecular pathogenesis of malignant mesothelioma.
Y. Sekido (2013)
The Effects of the Inhalation of Asbestos in Rats
J. Wagner (1974)
Comparative Dose‐Response Relationships of Asbestos Fiber Types: Magnitudes and Uncertainties
W. Nicholson (1991)
Relationship between lung asbestos fiber type and concentration and relative risk of mesothelioma. A case‐control study
A. J. Rogers (1991)
Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma--an outline.
J. C. Mcdonald (2010)
[Asbestos in drinking water (review)].
G. Krasovskii (1993)
Proceedings: Asbestos carcinogenesis.
J. Wagner (1975)
The hazards of chrysotile asbestos: a critical review.
P. Landrigan (1999)
Persistence of long, thin chrysotile asbestos fibers in the lungs of rats.
P. G. Coin (1994)
Estimation of future mortality from pleural malignant mesothelioma in Japan based on an age-cohort model.
Takehiko Murayama (2006)
Malignant mesothelioma 2008
M. Zervos (2008)
Familial aggregation of malignant mesothelioma in former workers and residents of Wittenoom, Western Australia
N. de Klerk (2013)
Mr Fluffy: the cancerous legacy hidden in hundreds of Canberra homes. The Guardian
P Farrell (2014)
Asbestos-Related Cancer and the Amphibole Hypothesis: 2. Stayner and Colleagues Respond: 2. Stayner and Colleagues Respond
L. Stayner (1997)
MicroRNAs in mesothelioma: from tumour suppressors and biomarkers to therapeutic targets.
G. Reid (2015)
Renal Biopsy for Research: An Overview of Russian Experience
S. Jargin (2014)
Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung disease in rats.
J. Davis (1978)
Role of microRNAs in malignant mesothelioma
A. Truini (2014)
Malignant mesothelioma: biology, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches.
M. Tomasetti (2009)
How conflicted authors undermine the World Health Organization (WHO) campaign to stop all use of asbestos: spotlight on studies showing that chrysotile is carcinogenic and facilitates other non-cancer asbestos-related diseases
X. Baur (2015)
Analysis of Asbestos Fibers in Lung Parenchyma, Pleural Plaques, and Mesothelioma Tissues of North American Insulation Workers a
N. Kohyama (1991)
Environmental exposure to asbestos: from geology to mesothelioma
M. Bayram (2014)
Carcinogenic implications of the lack of tremolite in UICC reference chrysotile.
A. Frank (1998)
Russian Opinion on Asbestos: All Fibers Equal
S. Jargin (2013)
Meeting Report: Mode(s) of Action of Asbestos and Related Mineral Fibers
M. Gwinn (2011)
Refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) toxicity and epidemiology: A review
M. Utell (2010)
Health risk of chrysotile revisited
D. Bernstein (2013)
Pulmonary toxicity of carbon nanotubes and asbestos - similarities and differences.
K. Donaldson (2013)
Chrysotile Biopersistence: The Misuse of Biased Studies
H. Pézerat (2009)
Asbestos Lung Burden in Necroscopic Samples from the General Population of Milan, Italy.
M. Casali (2015)
The Biopersistence of Canadian Chrysotile Asbestos Following Inhalation
D. Bernstein (2004)
Perspectives on refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) carcinogenicity: comparisons with other fibers*
H. Greim (2014)
Occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos and cancer risk: a review of the amphibole hypothesis.
L. Stayner (1996)
Lung cancer mortality and fibre exposures among North Carolina asbestos textile workers
D. Loomis (2009)
Modern concept of asbestos safety. ARGO: Ekaterinburg
FM Kogan (1995)
Soluble mesothelin-related protein in an asbestos-exposed population: the dust diseases board cohort study.
E. Park (2008)
Gene copy number analysis in malignant pleural mesothelioma using oligonucleotide array CGH
P. M. Lindholm (2007)
PM Lindholm (2015)
Clinical Significance of Serum Mesothelin in Patients with Mesothelioma and Lung Cancer
A. Cristaudo (2007)
Mesothelioma not associated with asbestos exposure.
B. Jasani (2012)
Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity risk of carbon nanotubes.
S. Toyokuni (2013)
The Regulatory Framework — Occupational Safety and Health Administration *
Chrysoula J. Komis (2018)
Malignant pleural mesothelioma: history, controversy and future of a manmade epidemic
O. D. Røe (2015)
Environmental exposure to crocidolite and mesothelioma: exposure-response relationships.
J. Hansen (1996)
Asbestos retention in human respiratory tissues: comparative measurements in lung parenchyma and in parietal pleura.
P. Sebastien (1980)
Chrysotile asbestos is the main cause of pleural mesothelioma.
A. Smith (1996)
The established and future biomarkers of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
V. Panou (2015)
Markers for the non-invasive diagnosis of mesothelioma: a systematic review
S. van der Bij (2011)
The health risk of chrysotile asbestos
D. Bernstein (2014)
About safety of asbestoscement materials and products. Stroimaterialy: Moscow
SM Neiman (2006)
Genome-Wide Profile of Pleural Mesothelioma versus Parietal and Visceral Pleura: The Emerging Gene Portrait of the Mesothelioma Phenotype
O. D. Røe (2009)
Amphibole fibres in Chinese chrysotile asbestos.
A. Tossavainen (2001)
Carbon nanotubes: an insight into the mechanisms of their potential genotoxicity.
D. van Berlo (2012)
Excess of mesotheliomas after exposure to chrysotile in Balangero, Italy
D. Mirabelli (2008)
Guidelines for pathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma: a consensus statement from the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.
A. Husain (2009)
An overview of how asbestos exposure affects the lung
G. Currie (2009)
The So-called Short-Fiber Controversy: Literature Review and Critical Analysis.
V. Roggli (2015)
On the genetic effects of low-dose radiation -
S. Jargin (2014)
Letter to the Editor re Bernstein et al: Health risk of chrysotile revisited
MM Finkelstein (2013)
The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure.
J. Hodgson (2000)
Retention of asbestos fibres in lungs of workers with asbestosis, asbestosis and lung cancer, and mesothelioma in Asbestos township.
A. Dufresne (1996)
A Meta-Analysis of Asbestos-Related Cancer Risk That Addresses Fiber Size and Mineral Type
D. Berman (2008)
Mesothelioma from chrysotile asbestos: update.
M. Kanarek (2011)
Experimental data on in vitro fibre solubility.
G. Larsen (1989)
Dependence of asbestos- and mineral dust-induced transformation of mammalian cells in culture on fiber dimension.
T. Hesterberg (1984)
Cytogenetic and molecular genetic changes in malignant mesothelioma.
M. Musti (2006)
Solid cancer increase among Chernobyl liquidators: alternative explanation
S. Jargin (2015)
Hormesis and homeopathy: The artificial twins
S. Jargin (2015)
Malignant mesotheliomas in former miners and millers of crocidolite at Wittenoom (Western Australia) after more than 50 years follow-up
G. Berry (2012)
Response to Murray M. Finkelstein, letter to the editor re Bernstein et al: Health risk of chrysotile revisited. Crit Rev Toxicol, 2013; 43(2): 154–183
D. Bernstein (2013)
[Regulations of controlled use of asbestos-containing materials in construction industry].
Izmerov Nf (2004)
Diagnostic performance of soluble mesothelin and megakaryocyte potentiating factor in mesothelioma.
K. Hollevoet (2010)
Black spots concentrate oncogenic asbestos fibers in the parietal pleura. Thoracoscopic and mineralogic study.
C. Boutin (1996)
Mesothelioma risk from chrysotile
J. Hodgson (2009)
Fibre distribution in the lungs and pleura of subjects with asbestos related diffuse pleural fibrosis.
A. Gibbs (1991)
The risk of mesothelioma from exposure to chrysotile asbestos
C. Yarborough (2007)
Asbestos content of lung tissue, lymph nodes, and pleural plaques from former shipyard workers.
R. Dodson (1990)
The Carcinogenicity of Chrysotile Asbestos
J. Harington (1991)
A case of occupational peritoneal mesothelioma from exposure to tremolite-free chrysotile in Quebec, Canada: A black swan case.
D. Egilman (2011)
The sizes, shapes, and mineralogy of asbestos structures that induce lung tumors or mesothelioma in AF/HAN rats following inhalation.
D. W. Berman (1995)
An Evaluation of Reported No-Effect Chrysotile Asbestos Exposures for Lung Cancer and Mesothelioma
J. Pierce (2008)
Cancer incidence among women and girls environmentally and occupationally exposed to blue asbestos at Wittenoom, Western Australia
A. Reid (2008)
Mesothelioma Epidemiology, Carcinogenesis, and Pathogenesis
H. Yang (2008)
Malignant mesothelioma: Facts, Myths, and Hypotheses
M. Carbone (2012)

This paper is referenced by
Semantic Scholar Logo Some data provided by SemanticScholar