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Alternaria Diseases Of Citrus - Novel Pathosystems.
L. W. Timmer, T. Peever, Z. Solel, K. Akimitsu
Published 2003 · Biology
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Citrus is affected by four diseases caused by Alternaria spp. Brown spot of tangerines, leaf spot of rough lemon, postharvest black rot of fruit occur widely in citrus areas of the world and are caused by different pathotypes of A. alternata. Mancha foliar occurs only on Mexican lime in western Mexico and is caused by A. limicola. Tangerine and rough lemon pathotypes produce host-specific toxins that affect membranes and respiration, respectively. Black rot is always associated with wounds and is caused by most citrus-associated isolates of A. alternata that produce endopolygalacturonase. Alternaria brown spot is a serious disease of susceptible tangerines and their hybrids in semi-arid Mediterranean climates as well as in more humid areas. Conidia, produced on lesions on mature and senescent leaves and stems under humid conditions, are dispersed by wind, and infect all juvenile tissues of susceptible cultivars when temperature and leaf wetness conditions are favorable. Commercially acceptable cultivars resistant to brown spot are being developed. Disease severity can be reduced by planting disease-free nursery stock on wider spacings, pruning tree skirts, and reducing irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. However, fungicides such as dithiocarbamates, triazoles, strobilurins, iprodione, or copper fungicides are used in most areas for disease control. A disease-forecasting model, the Alter-Rater, has been developed in Florida to assist in timing fungicide sprays.
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