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Proximal Junctional Kyphosis And Proximal Junctional Failure Following Adult Spinal Deformity Surgery

Seung-Jae Hyun, Byoung Hun Lee, Jonghwa Park, K. Kim, tae-ahn Jahng, H. Kim
Published 2017 · Medicine

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The purpose of this review is the current understanding of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF) following adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. We carried out a systematic search of PubMed for literatures published up to September 2017 with “proximal junctional kyphosis,” “proximal junctional failure,” and “adult spinal deformity” as search terms. A total of 98 literatures were searched. The 37 articles were included in this review. PJK is multifactorial in origin and likely results from variable risk factors. PJF is a progressive form of the PJK spectrum including bony fracture, subluxation between UIV and UIV+1, failure of fixation, neurological deficit, which may require revision surgery for proximal extension of fusion. Soft tissue protections, adequate selection of the UIV, prophylactic rib fixation, hybrid instrumentation such as hooks, vertebral cement augmentation at UIV and UIV+1, adequate selection material of rods and age-appropriate spinopelvic alignment goals are strategies to minimize PJK and PJF. The ability to perform aggressive global realignment of spinal deformities has also led to the discovery of new complications such as the PJK and PJF. Continuous research on PJK and PJF should be proceeded in order to comprehend the pathophysiology of these complications.
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